Antinucleolar antibodies (ANoAs) react against a wide range of nucleolar structures, virtually targeting every functional step of ribosomal transcription. Traditionally detected by immunofluorescence, their presence is confirmed by immunoprecipitation and in some cases by Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The patterns detected by immunofluorescence are: speckled, associated with reactivity against RNA polymerase; homogeneous, characteristic of anti-PM-Scl and anti-To/Th antibody positivity; and clumpy, observed in cells in metaphase and associated with antibodies against snoRNPs. ANoAs are prevalently associated with systemic sclerosis (SSc), but are detectable in small numbers of patients with other autoimmune diseases and carcinomas. The prevalence of different ANoAs in the serum of patients with SSc varies, but never exceeds 20-30%, making these antibodies not useful for primary diagnosis of the disease. Nonetheless, specific clinical associations for various subtypes of ANoAs suggest that these antibodies are potentially valuable diagnostic markers, especially for high-risk patient groups.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)