BACKGROUND: Juvenile myelomonocytic leukaemia (JMML) and chronic myelomonocytic leukaemia (CMML) are myelodysplastic myeloproliferative (MDS/MPN) neoplasms with unfavourable prognosis and without effective chemotherapy treatment. Trabectedin is a DNA minor groove binder acting as a modulator of transcription and interfering with DNA repair mechanisms; it causes selective depletion of cells of the myelomonocytic lineage. We hypothesised that trabectedin might have an antitumour effect on MDS/MPN.
METHODS: Malignant CD14+ monocytes and CD34+ haematopoietic progenitor cells were isolated from peripheral blood/bone marrow mononuclear cells. The inhibition of CFU-GM colonies and the apoptotic effect on CD14+ and CD34+ induced by trabectedin were evaluated. Trabectedin's effects were also investigated in vitro on THP-1, and in vitro and in vivo on MV-4-11 cell lines.
RESULTS: On CMML/JMML cells, obtained from 20 patients with CMML and 13 patients with JMML, trabectedin - at concentration pharmacologically reasonable, 1-5 nM - strongly induced apoptosis and inhibition of growth of haematopoietic progenitors (CFU-GM). In these leukaemic cells, trabectedin downregulated the expression of genes belonging to the Rho GTPases pathway (RAS superfamily) having a critical role in cell growth and cytoskeletal dynamics. Its selective activity on myelomonocytic malignant cells was confirmed also on in vitro THP-1 cell line and on in vitro and in vivo MV-4-11 cell line models.
CONCLUSIONS: Trabectedin could be good candidate for clinical studies in JMML/CMML patients.
- Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating
- Cell Line, Tumor
- Cell Proliferation
- Gene Expression Profiling
- Leukemia, Myelomonocytic, Chronic
- Leukemia, Myelomonocytic, Juvenile
- Mice, Nude
- Myelodysplastic Syndromes
- Tumor Stem Cell Assay
- Journal Article