Environmental chronic stress (ECS) has been identified as a trigger of acute coronary syndromes (ACS). Changes in redox balance, enhanced reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, and platelet hyperreactivity were detected in both ECS and ACS. However, the mechanisms by which ECS predisposes to thrombosis are not fully understood. Here, we investigated the impact of ECS on platelet activation and megakaryopoiesis in mice and the effect of Apocynin in this experimental setting. ECS induced by 4 days of forced swimming stress (FSS) treatment predisposed to arterial thrombosis and increased oxidative stress (e.g., plasma malondialdehyde levels). Interestingly, Apocynin treatment prevented these alterations. In addition, FSS induced abnormal megakaryopoiesis increasing the number and the maturation state of bone marrow megakaryocytes (MKs) and affecting circulating platelets. In particular, a higher number of large and reticulated platelets with marked functional activation were detected after FSS. Apocynin decreased the total MK number and prevented their ability to generate ROS without affecting the percentage of CD42d+cells, and it reduced the platelet hyperactivation in stressed mice. In conclusion, Apocynin restores the physiological megakaryopoiesis and platelet behavior, preventing the detrimental effect of chronic stress on thrombosis, suggesting its potential use in the occurrence of thrombosis associated with ECS.
- Journal Article