Apoptosis in human skin development: Morphogenesis, periderm, and stem cells

R. R. Polakowska, M. Piacentini, R. Bartlett, L. A. Goldsmith, A. R. Haake

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

During human skin development, embryonic- and fetal-specific periderm cells and incompletely keratinized cells are replaced by keratinocytes that differentiate while stratifying to form the fully functional epidermis. Proliferating basal cells of fetal skin also develop into epidermal appendages such as hair follicles and glands. We demonstrate that programmed cell death, not emphasized in conventional epidermal biology, has an important function in establishing the final architecture of the human epidermis and its appendages. Immunohistochemical localization of transglutaminases in fetal periderm, intermediate epidermal cells, and within appendages coincides with DNA fragmentation indicating that apoptosis is involved in deletion of these stage-specific cells and remodeling of appendages. The data also suggest that terminal differentiation of epidermal cells might be a specialized form of apoptosis. The pattern of expression of bcl-2, a gene associated with survival of some cells, is exclusive of the distribution patterns of markers of the cell death pathway. Bcl-2 protein is correlated with specific morphogenetic events in hair follicles and eccrine sweat glands, and its presence in single cells of the hair follicle bulge suggests that Bcl-2 may be a stem cell marker.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)176-188
Number of pages13
JournalDevelopmental Dynamics
Volume199
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 1994

Fingerprint

Human Development
Morphogenesis
Stem Cells
Apoptosis
Skin
Hair Follicle
Epidermis
Cell Death
Eccrine Glands
bcl-2 Genes
Sweat Glands
Transglutaminases
DNA Fragmentation
Keratinocytes
Cell Differentiation
Cell Survival
Proteins

Keywords

  • Apoptosis
  • Bcl-2
  • Human fetal skin morphogenesis
  • Programmed cell death

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cell Biology
  • Developmental Biology

Cite this

Polakowska, R. R., Piacentini, M., Bartlett, R., Goldsmith, L. A., & Haake, A. R. (1994). Apoptosis in human skin development: Morphogenesis, periderm, and stem cells. Developmental Dynamics, 199(3), 176-188.

Apoptosis in human skin development : Morphogenesis, periderm, and stem cells. / Polakowska, R. R.; Piacentini, M.; Bartlett, R.; Goldsmith, L. A.; Haake, A. R.

In: Developmental Dynamics, Vol. 199, No. 3, 1994, p. 176-188.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Polakowska, RR, Piacentini, M, Bartlett, R, Goldsmith, LA & Haake, AR 1994, 'Apoptosis in human skin development: Morphogenesis, periderm, and stem cells', Developmental Dynamics, vol. 199, no. 3, pp. 176-188.
Polakowska RR, Piacentini M, Bartlett R, Goldsmith LA, Haake AR. Apoptosis in human skin development: Morphogenesis, periderm, and stem cells. Developmental Dynamics. 1994;199(3):176-188.
Polakowska, R. R. ; Piacentini, M. ; Bartlett, R. ; Goldsmith, L. A. ; Haake, A. R. / Apoptosis in human skin development : Morphogenesis, periderm, and stem cells. In: Developmental Dynamics. 1994 ; Vol. 199, No. 3. pp. 176-188.
@article{b60bb1aff26e4205a9e5c45e94bf21f1,
title = "Apoptosis in human skin development: Morphogenesis, periderm, and stem cells",
abstract = "During human skin development, embryonic- and fetal-specific periderm cells and incompletely keratinized cells are replaced by keratinocytes that differentiate while stratifying to form the fully functional epidermis. Proliferating basal cells of fetal skin also develop into epidermal appendages such as hair follicles and glands. We demonstrate that programmed cell death, not emphasized in conventional epidermal biology, has an important function in establishing the final architecture of the human epidermis and its appendages. Immunohistochemical localization of transglutaminases in fetal periderm, intermediate epidermal cells, and within appendages coincides with DNA fragmentation indicating that apoptosis is involved in deletion of these stage-specific cells and remodeling of appendages. The data also suggest that terminal differentiation of epidermal cells might be a specialized form of apoptosis. The pattern of expression of bcl-2, a gene associated with survival of some cells, is exclusive of the distribution patterns of markers of the cell death pathway. Bcl-2 protein is correlated with specific morphogenetic events in hair follicles and eccrine sweat glands, and its presence in single cells of the hair follicle bulge suggests that Bcl-2 may be a stem cell marker.",
keywords = "Apoptosis, Bcl-2, Human fetal skin morphogenesis, Programmed cell death",
author = "Polakowska, {R. R.} and M. Piacentini and R. Bartlett and Goldsmith, {L. A.} and Haake, {A. R.}",
year = "1994",
language = "English",
volume = "199",
pages = "176--188",
journal = "Developmental Dynamics",
issn = "1058-8388",
publisher = "Wiley-Liss Inc.",
number = "3",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Apoptosis in human skin development

T2 - Morphogenesis, periderm, and stem cells

AU - Polakowska, R. R.

AU - Piacentini, M.

AU - Bartlett, R.

AU - Goldsmith, L. A.

AU - Haake, A. R.

PY - 1994

Y1 - 1994

N2 - During human skin development, embryonic- and fetal-specific periderm cells and incompletely keratinized cells are replaced by keratinocytes that differentiate while stratifying to form the fully functional epidermis. Proliferating basal cells of fetal skin also develop into epidermal appendages such as hair follicles and glands. We demonstrate that programmed cell death, not emphasized in conventional epidermal biology, has an important function in establishing the final architecture of the human epidermis and its appendages. Immunohistochemical localization of transglutaminases in fetal periderm, intermediate epidermal cells, and within appendages coincides with DNA fragmentation indicating that apoptosis is involved in deletion of these stage-specific cells and remodeling of appendages. The data also suggest that terminal differentiation of epidermal cells might be a specialized form of apoptosis. The pattern of expression of bcl-2, a gene associated with survival of some cells, is exclusive of the distribution patterns of markers of the cell death pathway. Bcl-2 protein is correlated with specific morphogenetic events in hair follicles and eccrine sweat glands, and its presence in single cells of the hair follicle bulge suggests that Bcl-2 may be a stem cell marker.

AB - During human skin development, embryonic- and fetal-specific periderm cells and incompletely keratinized cells are replaced by keratinocytes that differentiate while stratifying to form the fully functional epidermis. Proliferating basal cells of fetal skin also develop into epidermal appendages such as hair follicles and glands. We demonstrate that programmed cell death, not emphasized in conventional epidermal biology, has an important function in establishing the final architecture of the human epidermis and its appendages. Immunohistochemical localization of transglutaminases in fetal periderm, intermediate epidermal cells, and within appendages coincides with DNA fragmentation indicating that apoptosis is involved in deletion of these stage-specific cells and remodeling of appendages. The data also suggest that terminal differentiation of epidermal cells might be a specialized form of apoptosis. The pattern of expression of bcl-2, a gene associated with survival of some cells, is exclusive of the distribution patterns of markers of the cell death pathway. Bcl-2 protein is correlated with specific morphogenetic events in hair follicles and eccrine sweat glands, and its presence in single cells of the hair follicle bulge suggests that Bcl-2 may be a stem cell marker.

KW - Apoptosis

KW - Bcl-2

KW - Human fetal skin morphogenesis

KW - Programmed cell death

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0028314140&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0028314140&partnerID=8YFLogxK

M3 - Article

C2 - 7517223

AN - SCOPUS:0028314140

VL - 199

SP - 176

EP - 188

JO - Developmental Dynamics

JF - Developmental Dynamics

SN - 1058-8388

IS - 3

ER -