BACKGROUND/AIMS: Apparent treatment resistant hypertension (aTRH) is highly prevalent in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) and chronic kidney disease (CKD). The impact of aTRH and achievement of recommended blood pressure (BP) values on the rate of glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) loss in CKD patients is poorly known. To assess the role of aTRH and time-updated BP control (BPC) on the progression of CKD in patients with T2D and hypertension (HT) in real life clinical practice.
METHODS: Clinical records from a total of 2,778 diabetic patients with HT and stage 3 CKD (i.e. baseline eGFR values between 30 and 60 ml/min) and regular visits during a four-year follow-up were analyzed. The association between BPC (i.e. 75% of visits with BP <140/90 mmHg) and eGFR loss (i.e. a >30% reduction from baseline) or worsening of albuminuria status over time was assessed.
RESULTS: At baseline 33% of patients had aTRH. Over the 4-year follow-up, 20% had a >30% eGFR reduction. Patients with aTRH had an increased risk of eGFR loss >30% (OR 1.31; P<0.007). In patients with aTRH, BPC was associated with a 79% (P=0.029) greater risk of eGFR reduction despite a 58% (P=0.001) lower risk of albuminuria status worsening. In non-aTRH, no association was found between BPC and renal outcome.
CONCLUSION: In patients with stage 3 CKD the presence of aTRH entails a faster loss of eGFR. More effective prevention of aTRH should be implemented as this condition is associated with a burden of risk not modifiable by tight BP reduction.