Apparent Treatment Resistant Hypertension, Blood Pressure Control and the Progression of Chronic Kidney Disease in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes

Francesca Viazzi, Eulalia Greco, Antonio Ceriello, Paola Fioretto, Carlo Giorda, Pietro Guida, Giuseppina Russo, Salvatore De Cosmo, Roberto Pontremoli, AMD-Annals Study Grp

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Background/Aims: Apparent treatment resistant hypertension (aTRH) is highly prevalent in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) and chronic kidney disease (CKD). The impact of aTRH and achievement of recommended blood pressure (BP) values on the rate of glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) loss in CKD patients is poorly known. To assess the role of aTRH and time-updated BP control (BPC) on the progression of CKD in patients with T2D and hypertension (HT) in real life clinical practice. Methods: Clinical records from a total of 2,778 diabetic patients with HT and stage 3 CKD (i.e. baseline eGFR values between 30 and 60 ml/min) and regular visits during a four-year follow-up were analyzed. The association between BPC (i.e. 75% of visits with BP <140/90 mmHg) and eGFR loss (i.e. a > 30% reduction from baseline) or worsening of albuminuria status over time was assessed. Results: At baseline 33% of patients had aTRH. Over the 4-year follow-up, 20% had a > 30% eGFR reduction. Patients with aTRH had an increased risk of eGFR loss > 30% (OR 1.31; P <0.007). In patients with aTRH, BPC was associated with a 79% (P = 0.029) greater risk of eGFR reduction despite a 58% (P = 0.001) lower risk of albuminuria status worsening. In non-aTRH, no association was found between BPC and renal outcome. Conclusion: In patients with stage 3 CKD the presence of aTRH entails a faster loss of eGFR. More effective prevention of aTRH should be implemented as this condition is associated with a burden of risk not modifiable by tight BP reduction. (C) 2018 The Author(s) Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)422-438
Number of pages17
JournalKidney and Blood Pressure Research
Volume43
Issue number2
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2018

Keywords

  • Diabete
  • Chronic kidney disease
  • Hypertension
  • Albuminuria
  • EGFR

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