Application of high performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry in the environmental and biological monitoring of health care personnel occupationally exposed to cyclophosphamide and ifosfamide

Claudio Minoia, Roberta Turci, Cristina Sottani, Angelo Schiavi, Luigi Perbellini, Sergio Angeleri, Francesco Draicchio, Pietro Apostoli

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Twenty four workers (10 involved in the preparation and 14 in administration) exposed to cyclophosphamide (CP) and ifosfamide (IF) in two Italian hospitals were monitored. The extent of exposure was assessed by the analysis of air samples, wipe samples, pads and gloves. Urinary excretion at the beginning and at the end of the work shift was also measured by liquid-liquid extraction and analysis by high performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry. Three out of 24 air samples were positive for CP or IF. In wipe samples, CP concentrations ranging from 2 in Hospital A (32 samples) and from 0.2 to 383.3 μg/dm2 in Hospital B (17 samples), were found. IF concentrations varied from 2 in Hospital A and from 0.01 to 141.5 μg/dm2 in Hospital B. Pads (from 11 to 13 for each operator) were contaminated with CP and IF especially on arms, legs and chest. The use of a plastic-backed liner on the working tray in the laminar flow hoods was demonstrated to compromise the containment properties of the hood. Urine samples were positive for CP in 50% of the workers (range: 0.12.1 μg/L), whereas IF was detected in 2 subjects only (range: 0.1-0.8 μg/L). The results of this investigation demonstrate that vertical laminar airflow hoods, when incorrectly used, might represent a source of contamination and that higher risk may depend on lack of educational programmes and observance of preventive guidelines.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1485-1493
Number of pages9
JournalRapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry
Issue number20
Publication statusPublished - 1998


ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Analytical Chemistry
  • Spectroscopy

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