A molecular analysis of drug-resistant isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis was done in a population with a high prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus infection. Seventy-one consecutive isolates were tested for genotypic resistance to isoniazid, rifampicin, streptomycin, and ethambutol by polymerase chain reaction-single strand conformation polymorphism analysis and automated sequencing of target regions. Phenotypic and genotypic resistance to isoniazid, rifampicin, streptomycin, and ethambutol were detected in 23.4%, 11.2%, 7%, and 5.6% of isolates and in 87%, 88%, 40%, and 100% of resistant isolates, respectively. Specificity was 100% for all target regions. When rpoB, katG, and ahpC mutation analysis were combined, 86% of resistant isolates to any drug were identified. No mutations in inhA were found in isoniazid-resistant isolates. Molecular detection of drug resistance, particularly for isoniazid and rifampicin, may represent a sensitive and very specific technique. The strategy of selecting rpoB, katG, and ahpC to quickly identify most resistant isolates, with a relevant saving of resources, is warranted.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health