APpropriAteness of percutaneous Coronary interventions in patients with ischaemic HEart disease in Italy: the APACHE pilot study

Sergio Leonardi, Marcello Marino, Gabriele Crimi, Florinda Maiorana, Diego Rizzotti, Corrado Lettieri, Luca Bettari, Marco Zuccari, Paolo Sganzerla, Simone Tresoldi, Marianna Adamo, Sergio Ghiringhelli, Carlo Sponzilli, Giampaolo Pasquetto, Andrea Pavei, Luigi Pedon, Luciano Bassan, Mario Bollati, Paola Camisasca, Daniela TrabattoniMarta Brancati, Arnaldo Poli, Claudio Panciroli, Maddalena Lettino, Giuseppe Tarelli, Giuseppe Tarantini, Leonardo De Luca, Ferdinando Varbella, Giuseppe Musumeci, Stefano De Servi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


OBJECTIVES: To first explore in Italy appropriateness of indication, adherence to guideline recommendations and mode of selection for coronary revascularisation.

DESIGN: Retrospective, pilot study.

SETTING: 22 percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI)-performing hospitals (20 patients per site), 13 (59%) with on-site cardiac surgery.

PARTICIPANTS: 440 patients who received PCI for stable coronary artery disease (CAD) or non-ST elevation acute coronary syndrome were independently selected in a 4:1 ratio with half diabetics.

PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: Proportion of patients who received appropriate PCI using validated appropriate use scores (ie, AUS≥7). Also, in patients with stable CAD, we examined adherence to the following European Society of Cardiology recommendations: (A) per cent of patients with complex coronary anatomy treated after heart team discussion; (B) per cent of fractional flow reserve-guided PCI for borderline stenoses in patients without documented ischaemia; (C) per cent of patients receiving guideline-directed medical therapy at the time of PCI as well as use of provocative test of ischaemia according to pretest probability (PTP) of CAD.

RESULTS: Of the 401 mappable PCIs (91%), 38.7% (95% CI 33.9 to 43.6) were classified as appropriate, 47.6% (95% CI 42.7 to 52.6) as uncertain and 13.7% (95% CI 10.5% to 17.5%) as inappropriate. Median PTP in patients with stable CAD without known coronary anatomy was 69% (78% intermediate PTP, 22% high PTP). Ischaemia testing use was similar (p=0.71) in patients with intermediate (n=140, 63%) and with high PTP (n=40, 66%). In patients with stable CAD (n=352) guideline adherence to the three recommendations explored was: (A) 11%; (B) 25%; (C) 23%. AUS was higher in patients evaluated by the heart team as compared with patients who were not (7 (6.8) vs 5 (4.7); p=0.001).

CONCLUSIONS: Use of heart team approaches and adherence to guideline recommendations on coronary revascularisation in a real-world setting is limited. This pilot study documents the feasibility of measuring appropriateness and guideline adherence in clinical practice and identifies substantial opportunities for quality improvement.


Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)e016909
JournalBMJ Open
Issue number9
Publication statusPublished - Sep 5 2017


  • Journal Article


Dive into the research topics of 'APpropriAteness of percutaneous Coronary interventions in patients with ischaemic HEart disease in Italy: the APACHE pilot study'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this