Are 6-8 year old Italian children moving away from the Mediterranean diet?

Claudia Zani, E. Ceretti, S. Grioni, G. C V Viola, F. Donato, D. Feretti, A. Festa, S. Bonizzoni, A. Bonetti, S. Monarca, M. Villarini, S. Levorato, A. Carducci, M. Verani, B. Casini, A. De Donno, T. Grassi, F. Bagordo, E. Carraro, Si BonettaSa Bonetta, U. Gelatti, L. Covolo, R. Levaggi, R. M. Limina, G. Mazzoleni, I. Zerbini, C. Furia, P. Colombi, F. Braga, C. Fatigoni, M. Moretti, S. Vannini, B. Bruni, E. Caponi, G. Donzelli, A. Idolo, M. Guido, G. Devoti, M. R. Tumolo, F. Serio, V. Romanazzi, C. Pignata, T. Schilirò, G. Gilli, MAPEC-LIFE Study Group

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Background. The Mediterranean diet (MD) is considered one of the healthiest dietary models, as it decreases the risk of chronic diseases and may modulate the organism's early response to environmental pollution. In recent decades, Mediterranean countries have been replacing their traditional diet with other less healthy eating habits, especially among children and teenagers. Objective. The aim of this study was to evaluate the MD and the level of adherence to it in 6-8 year old Italian children, in relation to residence, lifestyle, and social and family contexts. Methods. A questionnaire was administered to the children's parents in two seasons in 5 Italian towns. The diet section contained 116 questions investigating the frequency of consumption of different types of food. The Italian Mediterranean Index (IMI) was calculated according to the intake of 6 typical Mediterranean and 4 non-Mediterranean foods. On the basis of IMI score, MD adherence was classified as low (≤3 IMI score), medium (4-5) and high (≥6). Total energy load and diet composition in micro- and macronutrients were calculated from consumption frequency. Results. Diet analysis was computed on 1164 subjects with two complete questionnaires. Body mass index, calculated for each subject, showed that 28.9% of the children were overweight, the figure varying slightly with area of residence. Our findings showed that 59.0% of the children had a low score for MD adherence. Conclusions. The results of this study showed that most Italian children did not follow the MD and socioeconomic characteristics appeared not to be associated with type of diet.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)339-348
Number of pages10
JournalAnnali di igiene : medicina preventiva e di comunita
Volume28
Issue number5
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2016

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Mediterranean Diet
Diet
Food
Environmental Pollution
Micronutrients
Feeding Behavior
Life Style
Body Mass Index
Chronic Disease
Parents

Keywords

  • Food-frequency questionnaire
  • Italian mediterranean index
  • Mediterranean diet

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)

Cite this

Zani, C., Ceretti, E., Grioni, S., Viola, G. C. V., Donato, F., Feretti, D., ... MAPEC-LIFE Study Group (2016). Are 6-8 year old Italian children moving away from the Mediterranean diet? Annali di igiene : medicina preventiva e di comunita, 28(5), 339-348. https://doi.org/10.7416/ai.2016.2114

Are 6-8 year old Italian children moving away from the Mediterranean diet? / Zani, Claudia; Ceretti, E.; Grioni, S.; Viola, G. C V; Donato, F.; Feretti, D.; Festa, A.; Bonizzoni, S.; Bonetti, A.; Monarca, S.; Villarini, M.; Levorato, S.; Carducci, A.; Verani, M.; Casini, B.; De Donno, A.; Grassi, T.; Bagordo, F.; Carraro, E.; Bonetta, Si; Bonetta, Sa; Gelatti, U.; Covolo, L.; Levaggi, R.; Limina, R. M.; Mazzoleni, G.; Zerbini, I.; Furia, C.; Colombi, P.; Braga, F.; Fatigoni, C.; Moretti, M.; Vannini, S.; Bruni, B.; Caponi, E.; Donzelli, G.; Idolo, A.; Guido, M.; Devoti, G.; Tumolo, M. R.; Serio, F.; Romanazzi, V.; Pignata, C.; Schilirò, T.; Gilli, G.; MAPEC-LIFE Study Group.

In: Annali di igiene : medicina preventiva e di comunita, Vol. 28, No. 5, 2016, p. 339-348.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Zani, C, Ceretti, E, Grioni, S, Viola, GCV, Donato, F, Feretti, D, Festa, A, Bonizzoni, S, Bonetti, A, Monarca, S, Villarini, M, Levorato, S, Carducci, A, Verani, M, Casini, B, De Donno, A, Grassi, T, Bagordo, F, Carraro, E, Bonetta, S, Bonetta, S, Gelatti, U, Covolo, L, Levaggi, R, Limina, RM, Mazzoleni, G, Zerbini, I, Furia, C, Colombi, P, Braga, F, Fatigoni, C, Moretti, M, Vannini, S, Bruni, B, Caponi, E, Donzelli, G, Idolo, A, Guido, M, Devoti, G, Tumolo, MR, Serio, F, Romanazzi, V, Pignata, C, Schilirò, T, Gilli, G & MAPEC-LIFE Study Group 2016, 'Are 6-8 year old Italian children moving away from the Mediterranean diet?', Annali di igiene : medicina preventiva e di comunita, vol. 28, no. 5, pp. 339-348. https://doi.org/10.7416/ai.2016.2114
Zani, Claudia ; Ceretti, E. ; Grioni, S. ; Viola, G. C V ; Donato, F. ; Feretti, D. ; Festa, A. ; Bonizzoni, S. ; Bonetti, A. ; Monarca, S. ; Villarini, M. ; Levorato, S. ; Carducci, A. ; Verani, M. ; Casini, B. ; De Donno, A. ; Grassi, T. ; Bagordo, F. ; Carraro, E. ; Bonetta, Si ; Bonetta, Sa ; Gelatti, U. ; Covolo, L. ; Levaggi, R. ; Limina, R. M. ; Mazzoleni, G. ; Zerbini, I. ; Furia, C. ; Colombi, P. ; Braga, F. ; Fatigoni, C. ; Moretti, M. ; Vannini, S. ; Bruni, B. ; Caponi, E. ; Donzelli, G. ; Idolo, A. ; Guido, M. ; Devoti, G. ; Tumolo, M. R. ; Serio, F. ; Romanazzi, V. ; Pignata, C. ; Schilirò, T. ; Gilli, G. ; MAPEC-LIFE Study Group. / Are 6-8 year old Italian children moving away from the Mediterranean diet?. In: Annali di igiene : medicina preventiva e di comunita. 2016 ; Vol. 28, No. 5. pp. 339-348.
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title = "Are 6-8 year old Italian children moving away from the Mediterranean diet?",
abstract = "Background. The Mediterranean diet (MD) is considered one of the healthiest dietary models, as it decreases the risk of chronic diseases and may modulate the organism's early response to environmental pollution. In recent decades, Mediterranean countries have been replacing their traditional diet with other less healthy eating habits, especially among children and teenagers. Objective. The aim of this study was to evaluate the MD and the level of adherence to it in 6-8 year old Italian children, in relation to residence, lifestyle, and social and family contexts. Methods. A questionnaire was administered to the children's parents in two seasons in 5 Italian towns. The diet section contained 116 questions investigating the frequency of consumption of different types of food. The Italian Mediterranean Index (IMI) was calculated according to the intake of 6 typical Mediterranean and 4 non-Mediterranean foods. On the basis of IMI score, MD adherence was classified as low (≤3 IMI score), medium (4-5) and high (≥6). Total energy load and diet composition in micro- and macronutrients were calculated from consumption frequency. Results. Diet analysis was computed on 1164 subjects with two complete questionnaires. Body mass index, calculated for each subject, showed that 28.9{\%} of the children were overweight, the figure varying slightly with area of residence. Our findings showed that 59.0{\%} of the children had a low score for MD adherence. Conclusions. The results of this study showed that most Italian children did not follow the MD and socioeconomic characteristics appeared not to be associated with type of diet.",
keywords = "Food-frequency questionnaire, Italian mediterranean index, Mediterranean diet",
author = "Claudia Zani and E. Ceretti and S. Grioni and Viola, {G. C V} and F. Donato and D. Feretti and A. Festa and S. Bonizzoni and A. Bonetti and S. Monarca and M. Villarini and S. Levorato and A. Carducci and M. Verani and B. Casini and {De Donno}, A. and T. Grassi and F. Bagordo and E. Carraro and Si Bonetta and Sa Bonetta and U. Gelatti and L. Covolo and R. Levaggi and Limina, {R. M.} and G. Mazzoleni and I. Zerbini and C. Furia and P. Colombi and F. Braga and C. Fatigoni and M. Moretti and S. Vannini and B. Bruni and E. Caponi and G. Donzelli and A. Idolo and M. Guido and G. Devoti and Tumolo, {M. R.} and F. Serio and V. Romanazzi and C. Pignata and T. Schilir{\`o} and G. Gilli and {MAPEC-LIFE Study Group}",
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AU - Zani, Claudia

AU - Ceretti, E.

AU - Grioni, S.

AU - Viola, G. C V

AU - Donato, F.

AU - Feretti, D.

AU - Festa, A.

AU - Bonizzoni, S.

AU - Bonetti, A.

AU - Monarca, S.

AU - Villarini, M.

AU - Levorato, S.

AU - Carducci, A.

AU - Verani, M.

AU - Casini, B.

AU - De Donno, A.

AU - Grassi, T.

AU - Bagordo, F.

AU - Carraro, E.

AU - Bonetta, Si

AU - Bonetta, Sa

AU - Gelatti, U.

AU - Covolo, L.

AU - Levaggi, R.

AU - Limina, R. M.

AU - Mazzoleni, G.

AU - Zerbini, I.

AU - Furia, C.

AU - Colombi, P.

AU - Braga, F.

AU - Fatigoni, C.

AU - Moretti, M.

AU - Vannini, S.

AU - Bruni, B.

AU - Caponi, E.

AU - Donzelli, G.

AU - Idolo, A.

AU - Guido, M.

AU - Devoti, G.

AU - Tumolo, M. R.

AU - Serio, F.

AU - Romanazzi, V.

AU - Pignata, C.

AU - Schilirò, T.

AU - Gilli, G.

AU - MAPEC-LIFE Study Group

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N2 - Background. The Mediterranean diet (MD) is considered one of the healthiest dietary models, as it decreases the risk of chronic diseases and may modulate the organism's early response to environmental pollution. In recent decades, Mediterranean countries have been replacing their traditional diet with other less healthy eating habits, especially among children and teenagers. Objective. The aim of this study was to evaluate the MD and the level of adherence to it in 6-8 year old Italian children, in relation to residence, lifestyle, and social and family contexts. Methods. A questionnaire was administered to the children's parents in two seasons in 5 Italian towns. The diet section contained 116 questions investigating the frequency of consumption of different types of food. The Italian Mediterranean Index (IMI) was calculated according to the intake of 6 typical Mediterranean and 4 non-Mediterranean foods. On the basis of IMI score, MD adherence was classified as low (≤3 IMI score), medium (4-5) and high (≥6). Total energy load and diet composition in micro- and macronutrients were calculated from consumption frequency. Results. Diet analysis was computed on 1164 subjects with two complete questionnaires. Body mass index, calculated for each subject, showed that 28.9% of the children were overweight, the figure varying slightly with area of residence. Our findings showed that 59.0% of the children had a low score for MD adherence. Conclusions. The results of this study showed that most Italian children did not follow the MD and socioeconomic characteristics appeared not to be associated with type of diet.

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