AIMS: To review studies on the comorbid psychological symptoms and disorders in patients with lower urinary tract disorders (LUTD) over the life-span, to analyse how they contribute toward the aetiology of LUTD and to discuss optimal service implementation.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: A review of relevant literature was conducted and presented during the ICI-RS meeting in 2018. Open questions and future directions were discussed.
RESULTS: On the basis of current research, there is overwhelming evidence in all age groups that psychological comorbidities are more common in patients with LUTD. Vice versa, patients with psychiatric disorders have higher rates of LUTD. The types of LUTDs and psychiatric disorders are heterogeneous. Complex aetiological models best explain specific associations of comorbidity. Irrespective of aetiology, it is advisable to address both urological and psychological issues in patients of all age groups with LUTD.
CONCLUSIONS: Psychological symptoms and disorders play a decisive role in the development of LUTD in all age groups and need to be considered in the assessment and treatment of LUTD.