Mitral valve prolapse is a common cardiac condition, with an estimated prevalence between 1% and 3%. Most patients have a benign course, but ever since its initial description mitral valve prolapse has been associated to sudden cardiac death. Although the causal relationship between mitral valve prolapse and sudden cardiac death has never been clearly demonstrated, different factors have been implicated in arrhythmogenesis in patients with mitral valve prolapse. In this work, we offer a comprehensive overview of the etiology and the genetic background, epidemiology, pathophysiology, and we focus on the state-of-the-art imaging-based diagnosis of mitral valve prolapse. Going beyond the classical, well-described clinical factors, such as young age, female gender and auscultatory findings, we investigate multimodality imaging features, such as alterations of anatomy and function of the mitral valve and its leaflets, the structural and contractile anomalies of the myocardium, all of which have been associated to sudden cardiac death.