Assessing executive function with the D-KEFS sorting test: normative data for a sample of the Italian adult population

Flavia Mattioli, Chiara Stampatori, Fabio Bellomi, Cristina Scarpazza, Paola Galli, Chiara Guarneri, Barbara Corso, Cristina Montomoli, Claudia Niccolai, Benedetta Goretti, Maria Pia Amato, Elisa Riboni, Chiara Dalla Tomasina, Monica Falautano, Ruggero Capra

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


One of the major problems in clinical neuropsychology is to apply ecological, easily administrable and sensitive tests that can help in the diagnosis of executive functions. In the present paper we present normative values for the D-KEFS sorting test (ST), exploring the ability of reasoning, categorization abilities, problem solving, flexibility of thinking and abstraction. We collected normative data in a group of 181 normal Italian subjects aged between 20 and 69 years old, matched for educational level. Multiple regression analysis was performed to evaluate the potential effects of age, sex and education. Age and education had a significant effect on ST performance. Our study provided normative data for the D-KEFS ST for the adult Italian population, corrections of raw scores for relevant demographic factors, and percentile grids for both baseline data and on re-testing after 9 months of follow-up. These normative Italian values support the use of the D-KEFS ST as a valid instrument for initial neuropsychological evaluation and longitudinal analysis of executive functions in clinical practice and for research purposes.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1895-1902
Number of pages8
JournalNeurological Sciences
Issue number12
Publication statusPublished - Nov 25 2014


  • Cognitive impairment
  • Delis–Kaplan executive function system sorting test
  • Executive functions
  • Neuropsychological tests
  • Normative data

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Clinical Neurology
  • Psychiatry and Mental health
  • Dermatology
  • Medicine(all)


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