Background: The basic mechanisms underlying the electroencephalograpy (EEG) response to transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) of the human cortex are not well understood. New method: A state-space modeling methodology is developed to gain insight into the network nature of the TMS/EEG response. Cortical activity is modeled using a multivariariate autoregressive model with exogenous stimulation parameters representing the effect of TMS. An observation equation models EEG measurement of cortical activity. An expectation–maximization algorithm is developed to estimate the model parameters. Results: The methodology is used to assess two different hypotheses for the mechanisms underlying TMS/EEG in wakefulness and sleep. The integrated model hypothesizes that recurrent interactions between cortical regions are the source of TMS/EEG, while the segregated model hypothesizes that the TMS/EEG results from excitation of independent cortical oscillators. The results show that the relatively simple EEG response to TMS recorded during non-rapid-eye-movement sleep is described equally well by either the integrated or segregated model. However, the integrated model fits the more complex TMS/EEG of wakefulness much better than the segregated model. Comparison with existing method(s): Existing methods are limited to small numbers of cortical regions of interest or do not represent the effect of TMS. Our results are consistent with previous studies contrasting the complexity of TMS/EEG in wakefulness and sleep. Conclusion: The new method strongly suggests that effective feedback connections between cortical regions are required to produce the TMS/EEG in wakefulness.
- Expectation–maximization algorithm
- Multivariate autoregressive model with exogenous stimulation
- State-space model
- Transcranial magnetic stimulation
ASJC Scopus subject areas