Hotspot codon 132 mutations (R132xIDH1m) are frequent in intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC), are druggable by anti-IDH1m agents, and could represent a marker of disease progression. Developing an assay to identify R132xIDH1m would provide a useful tool to select patients benefitting from targeted treatments. We tested a quantitative real-time allele-specific polymerase chain reaction (qPCR)-based method to detect the main R132xIDH1m in an Italian ICC series (n = 61) of formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) samples, and on circulating-free DNA samples. The outcomes were compared with nested PCR/Sanger sequencing. Reconstitution experiments of plasmids harboring the different R132xIDH1m mixed with wild-type (WT) DNA demonstrated that qPCR is able to detect at least 2% of all mutated allele. High efficiency was also observed on patient-derived mutated DNA mixed with WT DNA (up to 10% and 0.3 ng of mutated template); qPCR detected 16.4% of mutated samples (one R132G, three R132C and six R132L) while nested PCR/Sanger sequencing only 8.2% (four R132L and one R132G). In a single patient with an R132C-mutated tumor, qPCR was also performed on plasma samples collected at four time-points, observing an increase correlating with disease progression. In conclusion, we developed a qPCR assay which could represent a fast, inexpensive and sensitive tool both for detection of R132xIDH1m in ICC samples and monitoring disease progression from liquid biopsy.