Assessment of anti-tissue type plasminogen activator antibodies in patients with prosthetic heart valve thrombosis: The ATA trial

Mehmet Özkan, Macit Kalçik, Mustafa Ozan Gürsoy, Lütfi Öcal, Samantha Griffini, Süleyman Karakoyun, Mahmut Yesin, Sabahattin Gündüz, Mehmet Ali Astarcioǧlu, Emrah Bayam, Sinan Cerşit, Ahmet Çaǧri Aykan, Massimo Cugno

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Background: Thrombolysis is an effective treatment strategy for prosthetic valve thrombosis (PVT). Recombinant tissue-type plasminogen activator (rt-PA) is widely used as a thrombolytic agent. Infusion of rt-PA may trigger the production of anti-tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) antibodies (ATAs). We aimed to evaluate the possible relationship between ATA levels and PVT formation, and the role of baseline ATA levels on outcomes of thrombolytic therapy in patients with PVT. Methods: This prospective, single-center cohort study included 28 patients with PVT undergoing thrombolysis and 31 controls with normal prostheses. Plasma samples were collected from patients with PVT at baseline and at 15th, 30th, 90th, and 180th days after thrombolysis and from controls at baseline only. The ATA levels were assessed in human plasma by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results: Baseline ATA-immunoglobulin (Ig) G and IgM were significantly higher in patients with PVT than in controls. The levels of IgM and IgG peaked at 15th and 30th days after rt-PA infusion, respectively. Subtherapeutic international normalized ratio and baseline ATA-IgM were independent predictors of PVT. Thrombolysis failed in 6 patients (21%) in whom baseline IgM levels were significantly higher than successfully lysed patients. Rethrombosis occurred in 9 patients (32%) in whom baseline IgG levels were significantly higher than those without rethrombosis. There was a moderate positive correlation between baseline and 15th-day IgM levels and the dose of rt-PA needed for successful lysis. Conclusion: The ATA levels tended to be higher in patients with PVT at the time of initial diagnosis compared to controls without PVT. In addition, such patients with PVT and high ATA levels may be at high risk for failed thrombolysis or rethrombosis.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)372-380
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 2016


  • Echocardiography
  • Heart valve prosthesis
  • Thrombolytic therapy
  • Thrombosis
  • Tissue plasminogen activator

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pharmacology
  • Pharmacology (medical)
  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine


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