Assessment of IFN-γ and granzyme-B production by in “sitro” technology

Claudia Galassi, Gwenola Manic, Martina Musella, Antonella Sistigu, Ilio Vitale

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter


Tumor neantigens (TNAs) and tumor-associated antigens (TAAs) are crucial triggers of anticancer immune responses. Through major histocompatibility complex, such antigens activate T cells, which, by releasing interferon gamma (IFN-γ) and granzyme B (GRZB), act as crucial effectors against tumor onset and progression. However, in response to immune pressure, cancer cells use different strategies to favor the establishment of an immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment (TME). Elucidating the dynamics of tumor-host co-evolution provides novel opportunities for personalized cancer immunotherapies. The in sitro (in vitro + in situ) technology is an experimental approach involving the preparation of heterocellular cell suspensions from fresh tumors and their use in vitro. The in sitro experimental setup offers the possibility to (1) analyze immune-related parameters (e.g., quantification of cytokines released in the TME), (2) reveal the mechanism of action of drugs, and (3) unveil crucial cell-intrinsic and cell-extrinsic processes boosting anticancer immune responses. Nonetheless, the in sitro technology does not fully recapitulate the complexity of the tissue “in situ” nor models the patterns of infiltrating immune cell localization, and hence parallel experimentation should be scheduled. In this chapter we discuss in sitro technology to analyze and quantify IFN-γ and GRZB production by T cells either co-cultured with cancer cells in the presence of exogenous adjuvant stimuli (i.e., an antibody targeting the immune checkpoint programmed cell death protein 1, and recombinant calreticulin) and boosting with TAAs (i.e., the model SIINFEKL ovalbumin antigen). Specifically, we describe IFN-γ and GRZB quantification by flow cytometry, ELISA and ELISpot technologies.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationMethods in Enzymology
PublisherAcademic Press Inc.
Publication statusAccepted/In press - Jan 1 2019

Publication series

NameMethods in Enzymology
ISSN (Print)0076-6879
ISSN (Electronic)1557-7988


  • ELISpot
  • Ex vivo
  • Flow cytometry
  • Granzyme B
  • In sitro
  • Interferon-γ
  • T cells
  • Tumor

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry
  • Molecular Biology


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