Background: Maternal dietary habits are contributors of maternal and fetal health; however, available data are heterogeneous and not conclusive. Methods: Nutrient intake during pregnancy was assessed in 503 women with uncomplicated pregnancies, using the validated Food Frequency Questionnaire developed by the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC-FFQ). Results: In all, 68% of women had a normal body mass index at the beginning of pregnancy, and 83% of newborns had an appropriate weight for gestational age. Maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI), gestational weight gain (GWG), and placental weight were independently correlated with birth weight. GWG was not related to the pre-pregnancy BMI. EPIC-FFQ evaluation showed that 30% of women adhered to the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) ranges for macronutrient intake. In most pregnant women (98.1%), consumption of water was below recommendations. Comparing women with intakes within EFSA ranges for macronutrients with those who did not, no differences were found in BMI, GWG, and neonatal or placental weight. Neither maternal nor neonatal parameters were associated with the maternal dietary profiles. Conclusions: In our population, maternal pre-pregnancy BMI, GWG, and placental weight are determinants of birth weight percentile, while no association was found with maternal nutrition. Future studies should explore associations through all infancy. Impact: Maternal anthropometrics and nutrition status may affect offspring birth weight.In 503 healthy women, maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI), gestational weight gain (GWG), and placental weight were independently correlated to neonatal birth weight. GWG was not related to the pre-pregnancy BMI. In all, 30% of women respected the EFSA ranges for macronutrients. Neither maternal nor neonatal parameters were associated with maternal dietary profiles considered in this study.Maternal pre-pregnancy BMI, GWG, and placental weight are determinants of neonatal birth weight percentile, while a connection with maternal nutrition profiles was not found.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health