Mortality in pediatric cardiovascular failure is markedly improved with the advent of neonatal and pediatric intensive care and with the implementation of treatment guidelines. In 2002 the American College of Critical Care Medicine Clinical Practice Parameters for Hemodynamic Support of Pediatric and Neonatal Shock reported mortality rates of 0%-5% in previously healthy and 10% in chronically ill children with septic shock associated with implementation of "best clinical practices". Early recognition of shock is the key to successful resuscitation in critically ill children. Often, shock results in or co-exists with myo-cardial dysfunction or acute lung injury. Recognition and appropriate management of these insults is crucial for successful outcomes. Resuscitation should be directed to restoration of tissue perfusion and normalization of cardiac and respiratory function. The underlying cause of shock should also be addressed urgently. The physiological response of individual children to shock resuscitation varies and is often unpredictable. Therefore, repeated assessments of vital parameters are needed for taking appropriate decisions. Global indices of tissue oxygen delivery help in targeting therapies more accurately. Isotonic fluids form the cornerstone of treatment and the amount required for resuscitation is based on etiologies and therapeutic response. After resuscitation has been initiated, targeted history and clinical evaluation must be performed to ascertain the cause of shock and management of co-morbidities should be implemented simultaneously. While the management of shock can be protocol based, the treatment needs to be individualized depending on the suspected etiology and therapeutic response particularly for children who suffer from congenital heart disease.
|Number of pages||3|
|Issue number||3 Suppl 1|
|Publication status||Published - Jun 2010|
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health