BACKGROUND: The prognostic impact of perihematomal hypoperfusion in patients with acute intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) remains unclear. We tested the hypothesis that perihematomal hypoperfusion predicts poor ICH outcome and explored whether hematoma growth (HG) is the pathophysiological mechanism behind this association.
METHODS: A prospectively collected single-center cohort of consecutive ICH patients undergoing computed tomography perfusion on admission was analyzed. Cerebral blood flow (pCBF) was measured in the manually outlined perihematomal low-density area. pCBF was categorized into normal (40-55 mL/100 g/min), low (< 40 mL/100 g/min), and high (> 55 mL/100 g/min). HG was calculated as total volume increase from baseline to follow-up CT. A modified Rankin scale > 2 at three months was the outcome of interest. The association between cerebral perfusion and outcome was investigated with logistic regression, and potential mediators of this relationship were explored with mediation analysis.
RESULTS: A total of 155 subjects were included, of whom 55 (35.5%) had poor outcome. The rates of normal pCBF, low pCBF, and high pCBF were 17.4%, 68.4%, and 14.2%, respectively. After adjustment for confounders and keeping subjects with normal pCBF as reference, the risk of poor outcome was increased in patients with pCBF < 40 mL/100 g/min (odds ratio 6.11, 95% confidence interval 1.09-34.35, p = 0.040). HG was inversely correlated with pCBF (R = -0.292, p < 0.001) and mediated part of the association between pCBF and outcome (proportion mediated: 82%, p = 0.014).
CONCLUSION: Reduced pCBF is associated with poor ICH outcome in patients with mild-moderate severity. HG appears a plausible biological mediator but does not fully account for this association, and other mechanisms might be involved.