Association between the dietary inflammatory index and breast cancer in a large Italian case–control study

N. Shivappa, J.R. Hébert, V. Rosato, M. Montella, D. Serraino, C. La Vecchia

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Introduction: The putative relationship between diet, including its inflammatory potential, and breast cancer has been studied extensively, but results remain inconsistent. Using data from a large Italian case–control study conducted between 1991 and 1994, we examined the association between the dietary inflammatory index (DII) and odds of breast cancer. Methods: DII scores were computed using a validated 78-item food frequency questionnaire. Subjects were 2569 women with incident, histologically confirmed breast cancer and 2588 controls admitted to hospital for acute, non-hormone-related diseases. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) based on continuous and quintiles of DII were estimated by multiple logistic regression adjusting for age, study center, education, BMI, parity, menopausal status, family history of hormone-related cancers, and total energy intake. Results: Women in quintiles 2, 3, 4 and 5 had ORs of breast cancer of 1.33 (95% CI: 1.11, 1.59), 1.37 (95% CI: 1.13, 1.66), 1.41 (95% CI: 1.15, 1.73), and 1.75 (95% CI: 1.39, 2.21), respectively, compared to women in quintile 1. One-unit increase in DII increased the odds of having breast cancer by 9% (95% CI: 1.05, 1.14). Conclusions: A pro-inflammatory diet is associated to increased risk of breast cancer. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim
Original languageEnglish
Article number1600500
Number of pages7
JournalMolecular Nutrition and Food Research
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 2017


  • Breast cancer
  • Case–control
  • Diet
  • DII
  • Italy
  • adult
  • aged
  • body mass
  • breast tumor
  • caloric intake
  • case control study
  • clinical trial
  • complication
  • diet
  • female
  • human
  • inflammation
  • menopause
  • middle aged
  • multicenter study
  • odds ratio
  • risk factor
  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Body Mass Index
  • Breast Neoplasms
  • Case-Control Studies
  • Energy Intake
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Inflammation
  • Menopause
  • Middle Aged
  • Odds Ratio
  • Risk Factors


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