Association of biomarker cutoffs and endoscopic outcomes in crohns disease: A post hoc analysis from the calm study

Walter Reinisch, Remo Panaccione, Peter Bossuyt, Filip Baert, Alessandro Armuzzi, Xavier Hebuterne, Simon Travis, Silvio Danese, William J. Sandborn, Stefan Schreiber, Sofie Berg, Qian Zhou, Kristina Kligys, Ezequiel Neimark, Ahmed A. Suleiman, Geert D. Haens, Jean Frederic Colombel

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Background: CALM was a randomized phase 3 trial in patients with Crohns disease (CD) that demonstrated improved endoscopic outcomes when treatment was escalated based on cutoffs for inflammatory biomarkers, fecal calprotectin (FC), C-reactive protein (CRP), and CD Activity Index (CDAI) remission vs CDAI response alone. The purpose of this post hoc analysis of CALM was to identify drivers of treatment escalation and evaluate the association between biomarker cutoff concentrations and endoscopic end points. Methods: The proportion of patients achieving CD Endoscopic Index of Severity (CDEIS) 4 and no deep ulcers 48 weeks after randomization was evaluated according to CRP 5 mg/L or 5 mg/L and FC 250 ug/g or 250 ug/g. Subgroup analyses were performed according to disease location, and sensitivity analyses were conducted in patients with elevated CRP and/or FC at baseline. The association between endoscopic end points and biomarker cutoffs was performed using 2 test. Results: The proportion of patients who achieved the primary end point CDEIS 4 and no deep ulcers was significantly greater for those with FC 250 ug/g (74%; P 0.001), with an additive effect for CRP 5 mg/L. The association of FC 250 ug/g with improved endoscopic outcomes was independent of disease location, although the greatest association was observed for ileocolonic disease. Fecal calprotectin 250 ug/g, CRP 5 mg/L, and CDAI 150 gave a sensitivity/specificity of 72%/63% and positive/negative predictive values of 86%/42% for CDEIS 4 and no deep ulcers 48 weeks after randomization. Conclusion: This post hoc analysis of CALM demonstrated that a cutoff of FC 250 ug/g is a useful surrogate marker for mucosal healing in CD.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1562-1571
Number of pages10
JournalInflammatory Bowel Diseases
Issue number10
Publication statusPublished - Oct 1 2020


  • biologics
  • clinical pharmacology
  • Crohns disease
  • inflammatory bowel disease

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Immunology and Allergy
  • Gastroenterology


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