Association of current and former smoking with body mass index: A study of smoking discordant twin pairs from 21 twin cohorts

Istituto Superiore di Sanità

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Smokers tend to weigh less than never smokers, while successful quitting leads to an increase in body weight. Because smokers and non-smokers may differ in genetic and environmental family background, we analysed data from twin pairs in which the co-twins differed by their smoking behaviour to evaluate if the association between smoking and body mass index (BMI) remains after controlling for family background.

METHODS AND FINDINGS: The international CODATwins database includes information on smoking and BMI measured between 1960 and 2012 from 156,593 twin individuals 18-69 years of age. Individual-based data (230,378 measurements) and data of smoking discordant twin pairs (altogether 30,014 pairwise measurements, 36% from monozygotic [MZ] pairs) were analysed with linear fixed-effects regression models by 10-year periods. In MZ pairs, the smoking co-twin had, on average, 0.57 kg/m2 lower BMI in men (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.49, 0.70) and 0.65 kg/m2 lower BMI in women (95% CI: 0.52, 0.79) than the never smoking co-twin. Former smokers had 0.70 kg/m2 higher BMI among men (95% CI: 0.63, 0.78) and 0.62 kg/m2 higher BMI among women (95% CI: 0.51, 0.73) than their currently smoking MZ co-twins. Little difference in BMI was observed when comparing former smoking co-twins with their never smoking MZ co-twins (0.13 kg/m2, 95% CI 0.04, 0.23 among men; -0.04 kg/m2, 95% CI -0.16, 0.09 among women). The associations were similar within dizygotic pairs and when analysing twins as individuals. The observed series of cross-sectional associations were independent of sex, age, and measurement decade.

CONCLUSIONS: Smoking is associated with lower BMI and smoking cessation with higher BMI. However, the net effect of smoking and subsequent cessation on weight development appears to be minimal, i.e. never more than an average of 0.7 kg/m2.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)e0200140
JournalPLoS One
Volume13
Issue number7
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2018

Fingerprint

body mass index
Body Mass Index
Smoking
confidence interval
Confidence Intervals
Monozygotic Twins
Smoking Cessation
Body Weight
Databases
Weights and Measures
body weight
gender

Keywords

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Body Mass Index
  • Cohort Studies
  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Smoking/adverse effects
  • Smoking Cessation
  • Twins, Dizygotic
  • Twins, Monozygotic
  • Young Adult

Cite this

Association of current and former smoking with body mass index : A study of smoking discordant twin pairs from 21 twin cohorts. / Istituto Superiore di Sanità.

In: PLoS One, Vol. 13, No. 7, 2018, p. e0200140.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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title = "Association of current and former smoking with body mass index: A study of smoking discordant twin pairs from 21 twin cohorts",
abstract = "BACKGROUND: Smokers tend to weigh less than never smokers, while successful quitting leads to an increase in body weight. Because smokers and non-smokers may differ in genetic and environmental family background, we analysed data from twin pairs in which the co-twins differed by their smoking behaviour to evaluate if the association between smoking and body mass index (BMI) remains after controlling for family background.METHODS AND FINDINGS: The international CODATwins database includes information on smoking and BMI measured between 1960 and 2012 from 156,593 twin individuals 18-69 years of age. Individual-based data (230,378 measurements) and data of smoking discordant twin pairs (altogether 30,014 pairwise measurements, 36{\%} from monozygotic [MZ] pairs) were analysed with linear fixed-effects regression models by 10-year periods. In MZ pairs, the smoking co-twin had, on average, 0.57 kg/m2 lower BMI in men (95{\%} confidence interval (CI): 0.49, 0.70) and 0.65 kg/m2 lower BMI in women (95{\%} CI: 0.52, 0.79) than the never smoking co-twin. Former smokers had 0.70 kg/m2 higher BMI among men (95{\%} CI: 0.63, 0.78) and 0.62 kg/m2 higher BMI among women (95{\%} CI: 0.51, 0.73) than their currently smoking MZ co-twins. Little difference in BMI was observed when comparing former smoking co-twins with their never smoking MZ co-twins (0.13 kg/m2, 95{\%} CI 0.04, 0.23 among men; -0.04 kg/m2, 95{\%} CI -0.16, 0.09 among women). The associations were similar within dizygotic pairs and when analysing twins as individuals. The observed series of cross-sectional associations were independent of sex, age, and measurement decade.CONCLUSIONS: Smoking is associated with lower BMI and smoking cessation with higher BMI. However, the net effect of smoking and subsequent cessation on weight development appears to be minimal, i.e. never more than an average of 0.7 kg/m2.",
keywords = "Adolescent, Adult, Aged, Body Mass Index, Cohort Studies, Cross-Sectional Studies, Female, Humans, Male, Middle Aged, Smoking/adverse effects, Smoking Cessation, Twins, Dizygotic, Twins, Monozygotic, Young Adult",
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TY - JOUR

T1 - Association of current and former smoking with body mass index

T2 - A study of smoking discordant twin pairs from 21 twin cohorts

AU - Istituto Superiore di Sanità

AU - Piirtola, Maarit

AU - Jelenkovic, Aline

AU - Latvala, Antti

AU - Sund, Reijo

AU - Honda, Chika

AU - Inui, Fujio

AU - Watanabe, Mikio

AU - Tomizawa, Rie

AU - Iwatani, Yoshinori

AU - Ordoñana, Juan R

AU - Sánchez-Romera, Juan F

AU - Colodro-Conde, Lucia

AU - Tarnoki, Adam D

AU - Tarnoki, David L

AU - Martin, Nicholas G

AU - Montgomery, Grant W

AU - Medland, Sarah E

AU - Rasmussen, Finn

AU - Tynelius, Per

AU - Tan, Qihua

AU - Zhang, Dongfeng

AU - Pang, Zengchang

AU - Rebato, Esther

AU - Stazi, Maria A

AU - Fagnani, Corrado

AU - Brescianini, Sonia

AU - Busjahn, Andreas

AU - Harris, Jennifer R

AU - Brandt, Ingunn

AU - Nilsen, Thomas Sevenius

AU - Cutler, Tessa L

AU - Hopper, John L

AU - Corley, Robin P

AU - Huibregtse, Brooke M

AU - Sung, Joohon

AU - Kim, Jina

AU - Lee, Jooyeon

AU - Lee, Sooji

AU - Gatz, Margaret

AU - Butler, David A

AU - Franz, Carol E

AU - Kremen, William S

AU - Lyons, Michael J

AU - Magnusson, Patrik K E

AU - Pedersen, Nancy L

AU - Dahl Aslan, Anna K

AU - Öncel, Sevgi Y

AU - Aliev, Fazil

AU - Derom, Catherine A

AU - Vlietinck, Robert F

PY - 2018

Y1 - 2018

N2 - BACKGROUND: Smokers tend to weigh less than never smokers, while successful quitting leads to an increase in body weight. Because smokers and non-smokers may differ in genetic and environmental family background, we analysed data from twin pairs in which the co-twins differed by their smoking behaviour to evaluate if the association between smoking and body mass index (BMI) remains after controlling for family background.METHODS AND FINDINGS: The international CODATwins database includes information on smoking and BMI measured between 1960 and 2012 from 156,593 twin individuals 18-69 years of age. Individual-based data (230,378 measurements) and data of smoking discordant twin pairs (altogether 30,014 pairwise measurements, 36% from monozygotic [MZ] pairs) were analysed with linear fixed-effects regression models by 10-year periods. In MZ pairs, the smoking co-twin had, on average, 0.57 kg/m2 lower BMI in men (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.49, 0.70) and 0.65 kg/m2 lower BMI in women (95% CI: 0.52, 0.79) than the never smoking co-twin. Former smokers had 0.70 kg/m2 higher BMI among men (95% CI: 0.63, 0.78) and 0.62 kg/m2 higher BMI among women (95% CI: 0.51, 0.73) than their currently smoking MZ co-twins. Little difference in BMI was observed when comparing former smoking co-twins with their never smoking MZ co-twins (0.13 kg/m2, 95% CI 0.04, 0.23 among men; -0.04 kg/m2, 95% CI -0.16, 0.09 among women). The associations were similar within dizygotic pairs and when analysing twins as individuals. The observed series of cross-sectional associations were independent of sex, age, and measurement decade.CONCLUSIONS: Smoking is associated with lower BMI and smoking cessation with higher BMI. However, the net effect of smoking and subsequent cessation on weight development appears to be minimal, i.e. never more than an average of 0.7 kg/m2.

AB - BACKGROUND: Smokers tend to weigh less than never smokers, while successful quitting leads to an increase in body weight. Because smokers and non-smokers may differ in genetic and environmental family background, we analysed data from twin pairs in which the co-twins differed by their smoking behaviour to evaluate if the association between smoking and body mass index (BMI) remains after controlling for family background.METHODS AND FINDINGS: The international CODATwins database includes information on smoking and BMI measured between 1960 and 2012 from 156,593 twin individuals 18-69 years of age. Individual-based data (230,378 measurements) and data of smoking discordant twin pairs (altogether 30,014 pairwise measurements, 36% from monozygotic [MZ] pairs) were analysed with linear fixed-effects regression models by 10-year periods. In MZ pairs, the smoking co-twin had, on average, 0.57 kg/m2 lower BMI in men (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.49, 0.70) and 0.65 kg/m2 lower BMI in women (95% CI: 0.52, 0.79) than the never smoking co-twin. Former smokers had 0.70 kg/m2 higher BMI among men (95% CI: 0.63, 0.78) and 0.62 kg/m2 higher BMI among women (95% CI: 0.51, 0.73) than their currently smoking MZ co-twins. Little difference in BMI was observed when comparing former smoking co-twins with their never smoking MZ co-twins (0.13 kg/m2, 95% CI 0.04, 0.23 among men; -0.04 kg/m2, 95% CI -0.16, 0.09 among women). The associations were similar within dizygotic pairs and when analysing twins as individuals. The observed series of cross-sectional associations were independent of sex, age, and measurement decade.CONCLUSIONS: Smoking is associated with lower BMI and smoking cessation with higher BMI. However, the net effect of smoking and subsequent cessation on weight development appears to be minimal, i.e. never more than an average of 0.7 kg/m2.

KW - Adolescent

KW - Adult

KW - Aged

KW - Body Mass Index

KW - Cohort Studies

KW - Cross-Sectional Studies

KW - Female

KW - Humans

KW - Male

KW - Middle Aged

KW - Smoking/adverse effects

KW - Smoking Cessation

KW - Twins, Dizygotic

KW - Twins, Monozygotic

KW - Young Adult

U2 - 10.1371/journal.pone.0200140

DO - 10.1371/journal.pone.0200140

M3 - Article

C2 - 30001359

VL - 13

SP - e0200140

JO - PLoS One

JF - PLoS One

SN - 1932-6203

IS - 7

ER -