Associations with intraocular pressure across Europe: The European Eye Epidemiology (E3) Consortium

Anthony P. Khawaja, Henriët Springelkamp, Catherine Creuzot-Garcher, Cécile Delcourt, Albert Hofman, René Höhn, Adriana I. Iglesias, Roger C W Wolfs, Jean François Korobelnik, Rufino Silva, Fotis Topouzis, Katie M. Williams, Alain M. Bron, Gabriëlle H S Buitendijk, Maria Da Luz Cachulo, Audrey Cougnard-Grégoire, Jean François Dartigues, Christopher J. Hammond, Norbert Pfeiffer, Angeliki SalonikiouCornelia M. van Duijn, Johannes R. Vingerling, Robert N. Luben, Alireza Mirshahi, Julia Lamparter, Caroline C W Klaver, Nomdo M. Jansonius, Paul J. Foster, Niyazi Acar, Eleftherios Anastosopoulos, Augusto Azuara-Blanco, Arthur Bergen, Geir Bertelsen, Christine Binquet, Alan Bird, Lionel Brétillon, Alain Bron, Gabrielle Buitendijk, Maria Luz Cachulo, Usha Chakravarthy, Michelle Chan, Petrus Chang, Annemarie Colijn, Audrey Cougnard-Grégoire, Catherine Creuzot-Garcher, Philippa Cumberland, José Cunha-Vaz, Vincent Daien, Gabor Deak, Edoardo Midena, On behalf of the European Eye Epidemiology (E) Consortium

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Raised intraocular pressure (IOP) is the most important risk factor for developing glaucoma, the second commonest cause of blindness globally. Understanding associations with IOP and variations in IOP between countries may teach us about mechanisms underlying glaucoma. We examined cross-sectional associations with IOP in 43,500 European adults from 12 cohort studies belonging to the European Eye Epidemiology (E3) consortium. Each study conducted multivariable linear regression with IOP as the outcome variable and results were pooled using random effects meta-analyzis. The association of standardized study IOP with latitude was tested using meta-regression. Higher IOP was observed in men (0.18 mmHg; 95 % CI 0.06, 0.31; P = 0.004) and with higher body mass index (0.21 mmHg per 5 kg/m2; 95 % CI 0.14, 0.28; P < 0.001), shorter height (−0.17 mmHg per 10 cm; 95 % CI –0.25, −0.08; P < 0.001), higher systolic blood pressure (0.17 mmHg per 10 mmHg; 95 % CI 0.12, 0.22; P < 0.001) and more myopic refraction (0.06 mmHg per Dioptre; 95 % CI 0.03, 0.09; P < 0.001). An inverted U-shaped trend was observed between age and IOP, with IOP increasing up to the age of 60 and decreasing in participants older than 70 years. We found no significant association between standardized IOP and study location latitude (P = 0.76). Novel findings of our study include the association of lower IOP in taller people and an inverted-U shaped association of IOP with age. We found no evidence of significant variation in IOP across Europe. Despite the limited range of latitude amongst included studies, this finding is in favour of collaborative pooling of data from studies examining environmental and genetic determinants of IOP in Europeans.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1-11
Number of pages11
JournalEuropean Journal of Epidemiology
Publication statusAccepted/In press - Sep 9 2016


  • Blood pressure
  • Body mass index
  • Epidemiology
  • Glaucoma
  • Intraocular pressure
  • Refractive errors

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Epidemiology


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