Asynchronous gaze-independent event-related potential-based brain-computer interface

Fabio Aloise, Pietro Aricò, Francesca Schettini, Serenella Salinari, Donatella Mattia, Febo Cincotti

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Objective: In this study a gaze independent event related potential (ERP)-based brain computer interface (BCI) for communication purpose was combined with an asynchronous classifier endowed with dynamical stopping feature. The aim was to evaluate if and how the performance of such asynchronous system could be negatively affected in terms of communication efficiency and robustness to false positives during the intentional no-control state. Material and methods: The proposed system was validated with the participation of 9 healthy subjects. A comparison was performed between asynchronous and synchronous classification technique outputs while users were controlling the same gaze independent BCI interface. The performance of both classification techniques were assessed both off-line and on-line by means of the efficiency metric introduced by Bianchi et al. (2007). This latter metric allows to set a different misclassification cost for wrong classifications and abstentions. Robustness was evaluated as the rate of false positives occurring during voluntary no-control states. Results: The asynchronous classifier did not exhibited significantly higher accuracy or lower error rate with respect to the synchronous classifier (accuracy: 74.66% versus 87.96%, error rate: 7.11% versus 12.04% respectively). However, the on-line and off-line analysis revealed that the communication efficiency was significantly improved (p

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)61-69
Number of pages9
JournalArtificial Intelligence in Medicine
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - Oct 2013


  • Asynchronous classifier
  • Brain-computer interface
  • Covert attention
  • Event-related potentials
  • Gaze-independent brain-computer interface

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Artificial Intelligence
  • Medicine (miscellaneous)


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