Ataxia-Telangiectasia Mutated Kinase in the Control of Oxidative Stress, Mitochondria, and Autophagy in Cancer: A Maestro With a Large Orchestra

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Abstract

Ataxia-telangiectasia mutated kinase (ATM) plays a central role in the DNA damage response (DDR) and mutations in its gene lead to the development of a rare autosomic genetic disorder, ataxia telangiectasia (A-T) characterized by neurodegeneration, premature aging, defects in the immune response, and higher incidence of lymphoma development. The ability of ATM to control genome stability several pointed to ATM as tumor suppressor gene. Growing evidence clearly support a significant role of ATM, in addition to its master ability to control the DDR, as principle modulator of oxidative stress response and mitochondrial homeostasis, as well as in the regulation of autophagy, hypoxia, and cancer stem cell survival. Consistently, A-T is strongly characterized by aberrant oxidative stress, significant inability to remove damaged organelles such as mitochondria. These findings raise the question whether ATM may contribute to a more general hijack of signaling networks in cancer, therefore, playing a dual role in this context. Indeed, an unexpected tumorigenic role for ATM, in particular, tumor contexts has been demonstrated. Genetic inactivation of Beclin-1, an autophagy regulator, significantly reverses mitochondrial abnormalities and tumor development in ATM-null mice, independently of DDR. Furthermore, ATM sustains cancer stem cells survival by promoting the autophagic flux and ATM kinase activity is enhanced in HER2-dependent tumors. This mini-review aims to shed new light on the complexity of these new molecular circuits through which ATM may modulate cancer progression and to highlight a novel role of ATM in the control of proteostasis.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)73
JournalFrontiers in Oncology
Volume8
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2018

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Ataxia Telangiectasia
Autophagy
Mitochondria
Oxidative Stress
Phosphotransferases
Neoplasms
DNA Damage
Neoplastic Stem Cells
Cell Survival
Premature Aging
Inborn Genetic Diseases
Genomic Instability
Tumor Suppressor Genes
Organelles
Lymphoma

Cite this

@article{f0fb91a8602b4baeb5ac10c92685052e,
title = "Ataxia-Telangiectasia Mutated Kinase in the Control of Oxidative Stress, Mitochondria, and Autophagy in Cancer: A Maestro With a Large Orchestra",
abstract = "Ataxia-telangiectasia mutated kinase (ATM) plays a central role in the DNA damage response (DDR) and mutations in its gene lead to the development of a rare autosomic genetic disorder, ataxia telangiectasia (A-T) characterized by neurodegeneration, premature aging, defects in the immune response, and higher incidence of lymphoma development. The ability of ATM to control genome stability several pointed to ATM as tumor suppressor gene. Growing evidence clearly support a significant role of ATM, in addition to its master ability to control the DDR, as principle modulator of oxidative stress response and mitochondrial homeostasis, as well as in the regulation of autophagy, hypoxia, and cancer stem cell survival. Consistently, A-T is strongly characterized by aberrant oxidative stress, significant inability to remove damaged organelles such as mitochondria. These findings raise the question whether ATM may contribute to a more general hijack of signaling networks in cancer, therefore, playing a dual role in this context. Indeed, an unexpected tumorigenic role for ATM, in particular, tumor contexts has been demonstrated. Genetic inactivation of Beclin-1, an autophagy regulator, significantly reverses mitochondrial abnormalities and tumor development in ATM-null mice, independently of DDR. Furthermore, ATM sustains cancer stem cells survival by promoting the autophagic flux and ATM kinase activity is enhanced in HER2-dependent tumors. This mini-review aims to shed new light on the complexity of these new molecular circuits through which ATM may modulate cancer progression and to highlight a novel role of ATM in the control of proteostasis.",
author = "Venturina Stagni and Claudia Cirotti and Daniela Baril{\`a}",
year = "2018",
doi = "10.3389/fonc.2018.00073",
language = "English",
volume = "8",
pages = "73",
journal = "Frontiers in Oncology",
issn = "2234-943X",
publisher = "Frontiers Media S. A.",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Ataxia-Telangiectasia Mutated Kinase in the Control of Oxidative Stress, Mitochondria, and Autophagy in Cancer

T2 - A Maestro With a Large Orchestra

AU - Stagni, Venturina

AU - Cirotti, Claudia

AU - Barilà, Daniela

PY - 2018

Y1 - 2018

N2 - Ataxia-telangiectasia mutated kinase (ATM) plays a central role in the DNA damage response (DDR) and mutations in its gene lead to the development of a rare autosomic genetic disorder, ataxia telangiectasia (A-T) characterized by neurodegeneration, premature aging, defects in the immune response, and higher incidence of lymphoma development. The ability of ATM to control genome stability several pointed to ATM as tumor suppressor gene. Growing evidence clearly support a significant role of ATM, in addition to its master ability to control the DDR, as principle modulator of oxidative stress response and mitochondrial homeostasis, as well as in the regulation of autophagy, hypoxia, and cancer stem cell survival. Consistently, A-T is strongly characterized by aberrant oxidative stress, significant inability to remove damaged organelles such as mitochondria. These findings raise the question whether ATM may contribute to a more general hijack of signaling networks in cancer, therefore, playing a dual role in this context. Indeed, an unexpected tumorigenic role for ATM, in particular, tumor contexts has been demonstrated. Genetic inactivation of Beclin-1, an autophagy regulator, significantly reverses mitochondrial abnormalities and tumor development in ATM-null mice, independently of DDR. Furthermore, ATM sustains cancer stem cells survival by promoting the autophagic flux and ATM kinase activity is enhanced in HER2-dependent tumors. This mini-review aims to shed new light on the complexity of these new molecular circuits through which ATM may modulate cancer progression and to highlight a novel role of ATM in the control of proteostasis.

AB - Ataxia-telangiectasia mutated kinase (ATM) plays a central role in the DNA damage response (DDR) and mutations in its gene lead to the development of a rare autosomic genetic disorder, ataxia telangiectasia (A-T) characterized by neurodegeneration, premature aging, defects in the immune response, and higher incidence of lymphoma development. The ability of ATM to control genome stability several pointed to ATM as tumor suppressor gene. Growing evidence clearly support a significant role of ATM, in addition to its master ability to control the DDR, as principle modulator of oxidative stress response and mitochondrial homeostasis, as well as in the regulation of autophagy, hypoxia, and cancer stem cell survival. Consistently, A-T is strongly characterized by aberrant oxidative stress, significant inability to remove damaged organelles such as mitochondria. These findings raise the question whether ATM may contribute to a more general hijack of signaling networks in cancer, therefore, playing a dual role in this context. Indeed, an unexpected tumorigenic role for ATM, in particular, tumor contexts has been demonstrated. Genetic inactivation of Beclin-1, an autophagy regulator, significantly reverses mitochondrial abnormalities and tumor development in ATM-null mice, independently of DDR. Furthermore, ATM sustains cancer stem cells survival by promoting the autophagic flux and ATM kinase activity is enhanced in HER2-dependent tumors. This mini-review aims to shed new light on the complexity of these new molecular circuits through which ATM may modulate cancer progression and to highlight a novel role of ATM in the control of proteostasis.

U2 - 10.3389/fonc.2018.00073

DO - 10.3389/fonc.2018.00073

M3 - Review article

C2 - 29616191

VL - 8

SP - 73

JO - Frontiers in Oncology

JF - Frontiers in Oncology

SN - 2234-943X

ER -