There is much evidence to support a role for natural killer (NK) cells in controlling the progression of multiple myeloma (MM), a malignancy characterized by an abnormal plasma cell proliferation in the bone marrow (BM). Induction of DNA dam - age response has been recently shown capable of enhancing NKG2D ligand (NKG2DL) expression, but nothing is known about DNAM-1 ligand (DNAM-1L) regulation. In this study, we show that myeloma cells treated with low doses of therapeutic agents commonly used in the management of patients with MM, such as doxorubicin, melphalan, and bor - tezomib, up-regulate DNAM-1 and NKG2D ligands. Accordingly, therapeutic drug treatment of MM cells increases NK-cell degranulation, the NKG2D and DNAM-1 receptors being the major triggering molecules. Similar data were also obtained using ex vivo primary plasma cells derived from MM patients. Drug-induced DNAM-1 and NKG2D ligand expression was abolished after treatment with the ATM (ataxia telangiectasia mutated) and ATR (ATM - and RAD3-related) pharmacologic inhibitors caffeine and KU-55933, and was preferentially associated with senescent cells arrested in the G2 phase of the cell cycle. Altogether, our findings have identified a common pathway that can trigger the up-regulation of different NK cell-activating ligands and suggest that NK cells represent an immunosurveillance mechanism toward cells undergoing stress-induced senescent programs.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cell Biology