Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

Samuele0 Cortese, F. Xavier Castellanos

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter


This chapter reviews attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), with an emphasis on structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging studies that have illuminated its neurobiology. Although most studies have small to medium samples, the overall number has grown substantially, and the focus here is on quantitative meta-analyses. Cumulative evidence implicates frontoparietal, striatal, thalamic, and cerebellar involvement in ADHD, but accumulating interactions among the default network and top-down regulatory networks, and visual and sensorimotor cortex are increasingly implicated. This multiplicity of neural systems is unlikely to be involved in all patients with ADHD, but the relevant subsets in relation to individual symptom dimensions have not yet been identified. The challenge is to identify these in relation to replicated genetic risk markers, which need to be explored in animal models. In this way, the nosology and therapeutics of the near future will emerge, as encouraged by the Research Domains Criteria project.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationNeurobiology of Brain Disorders: Biological Basis of Neurological and Psychiatric Disorders
PublisherElsevier Inc.
Number of pages17
ISBN (Print)9780123982803, 9780123982704
Publication statusPublished - Dec 3 2014


  • Animal model
  • Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder
  • Functional magnetic resonance imaging
  • Magnetic resonance imaging
  • Neuroimaging
  • Resting state magnetic resonance imaging
  • Structural magnetic resonance imaging

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)


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