Conclusions: The results of this study suggest that atypical bacteria may be involved not only in acute upper airway diseases but also in recurrent infections requiring adenoidectomy and/or tonsillectomy. Therefore, their identification, followed by an appropriate treatment, should be considered. Objective: Although viruses and group A beta-haemolytic streptococci (GABHS) represent the most frequent bacterial aetiological agents of paediatric upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs), chlamydia and Mycoplasma pneumoniae have also been found in acute tonsillopharyngitis. Nevertheless their relevance in chronic or recurrent URTI has never been evaluated. This study aimed to further address the role of atypical bacteria in recurrent URTIs requiring adenoidectomy and tonsillectomy. Methods: Samples from 55 consecutive children who underwent adenoidectomy and/or tonsillectomy for recurrent or chronic URTI were cut transversely into smaller sections of 5 mm. Each section was pooled and assayed by specific PCR for viruses and bacteria. Results: Adenovirus was detected in 10 patients (18.2%), influenza A virus in one patient and influenza B virus in another. None of the other tested viruses was found. GABHS was found in 37 patients (67.3%). Moraxella catarrhalis and Haemophilus influenzae were detected in 30 patients (54.5%). M. pneumoniae was detected in 6 patients (10.9%) and C. pneumoniae was found in 10 patients (18.2%).
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