In the immunoncology era, an acceleration of tumor growth upon immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICI), defined as hyperprogressive disease (HPD) has been observed across different cancers. Although in non-small-cell lung cancer, most of the available evidence regarding HPD has been reported for patients treated with single agent PD-1 and PD-L1 inhibitors, in retrospective series a variable proportion of patients receiving ICI combinations also experienced HPD. Similarly, the shape of survival curves and the progression rates in clinical trials testing combinations of PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitors and anti-CTLA-4 agents suggest the occurrence of HPD. Few data are available regarding pseudoprogression upon ICI combinations. However, considering that pseudoprogression has been reported for anti-PD-1/PD-L1 agents and for CTLA-4 inhibitors separately, it is likely that it may occur also upon combinations of these two classes of drugs.
|Publication status||Published - Aug 1 2020|