We describe the natural history of the RTSII phenotype in a 7-year-old boy who developed intrauterine and postnatal growth retardation, failure to thrive and persisting diarrhoea. The growth hormone stimulation test identified an isolated growth hormone deficiency. Since infancy, the patient manifested skin lesions characterized by a very mild poikilodermic-like appearance on the cheeks only, widespread café-au-lait spots and the absence of eyebrows and eyelashes. There was no cataract. Orthopaedic and radiologic work-up identified the absence of thumb anomaly and radial head luxation and patellar hypoplasia. Neurologic, cognitive milestones and intelligence were normal. The cytogenetic work-up did not show any anomaly. Based on this clinical presentation, we carried out a sequencing analysis of the RECQL4 gene, which is responsible for Rothmund-Thomson, RAPADILINO and Baller-Gerold syndromes and found a splice site mutation (IVS10-1G>A) and a nucleotide substitution in exon 12 (L638P). The mother was identified as a carrier for the substitution in exon 12 and the father for the splice site mutation, respectively. An analysis of the transcripts focused on the RECQL4 helicase domain: in the proband only those generated from the maternal L638 allele were present. This case report emphasizes the clinical overlap between RAPADILINO and Rothmund-Thomson syndromes within a continuum phenotypic spectrum. The distinctive set of clinical signs displayed by the patient may be accounted for by his unique combination of two different RECQL4 mutations. The molecular findings provide information that enhances our comprehension of genotype-phenotype correlations in RECQL4 diseases, enables a more precise genetic counseling to the parents and facilitates a more appropriate long-term follow-up to the affected child.
- RECQL4 mutations
- Rothmund-Thomson syndrome
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health