Autochthonous human and canine strongyloides stercoralis infection in europe: Report of a human case in an italian teen and systematic review of the literature

Letizia Ottino, Dora Buonfrate, Paola Paradies, Zeno Bisoffi, Alberto Antonelli, Gian Maria Rossolini, Simona Gabrielli, Alessandro Bartoloni, Lorenzo Zammarchi

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

Abstract

Autochthonous human and canine strongyloidiasis is reported in Europe but is unclear whether the transmission of infection still occurs. We report a previously unpublished human case in an Italian teen and perform a systematic review of literature on autochthonous human and canine strongyloidiasis in Europe to investigate the current dynamic of transmission. Overall, 109 papers published after 1987 were included and one previously unpublished Italian case was added. Eighty case reports were retrieved and 42 of them (52.5%) had severe strongyloidiasis. Most cases were diagnosed in Spain, Italy and France. The median age was 58, the most represented age group was 61–70 years, 11 patients were under 30, and 7 of them were diagnosed after 2000. Epidemiological studies on human strongyloidiasis showed prevalence ranging from 0.56% to 28%. Overall, agriculture work, mine work and walking barefoot were the most commonly reported risk factors for infection. Canine strongyloidiasis was reported mainly in Italy (68 cases), but a few cases occurred also in Iceland, Finland, England, Germany, France, Switzerland, Russia, Slovakia, Romania and Greece. Autochthonous strongyloidiasis is still reported in Europe and sporadic transmission still occurs. Health care professionals should be aware of this issue to identify infected subjects and avoid adverse outcomes, especially in immunosuppressed patients. Further investigations are needed to clarify the zoonotic transmission of this nematode.

Original languageEnglish
Article number439
JournalPathogens
Volume9
Issue number6
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Jun 2020

Keywords

  • Neglected tropical diseases
  • One health
  • Strongyloidiasis
  • Transplant

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Immunology and Allergy
  • Molecular Biology
  • Immunology and Microbiology(all)
  • Microbiology (medical)
  • Infectious Diseases

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