Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) represent a group of intestinal disorders with a chronic and relapsing inflammation of the gut, and with a potential risk of systemic involvement of other organs and systems. Over the pediatric age, an incidence higher than 20% of developing extraintestinal manifestation during follow-up has been reported. The liver and the biliary system are frequently involved, and primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) is the most predominant entity with an incidence rate of 6.4–7.8% in children. PSC recognizes a multifactorial pathogenesis, and so far a not fully known mechanism for this association. The peculiar phenotype and the distinct clinical course of patients with IBD and PSC-associated make this ‘linkage’ an attractive study model to better understand mechanisms underlying these diseases. Approaching to these patients is complex and multidisciplinary, and a unique therapeutic strategy has not been standardized yet. New medications are being studied; however, further studies are needed to fully understand the pathogenesis and to improve the care of these patients. The aim of this paper is to review the recent literature regarding hepatobiliary involvement in IBD patients, with particular attention to PSC, and to provide the latest information for a correct diagnosis and appropriate management.
- Autoimmune liver diseases
- extra-gastrointestinal manifestations
- inflammatory bowel diseases
- primary sclerosing cholangitis
ASJC Scopus subject areas