Autologous mixed lymphocyte reactions (AMLR) and immunological abnormalities: In vitro/in vivo

F. Puppo, I. Pierri, M. Scudeletti, F. Indiveri

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter


Human T lymphocytes proliferate in vitro when cocultured with autologous non-T or activated T cells. This phenomenon is defined autologous mixed lymphocyte reaction (AMLR). The major stimulating molecules in AMLR are the HLA class I antigens/which are expressed in both non-T and activated T cells. The major responder cells are CD4+ T lymphocytes. During the AMLR response both helper and suppressor functions are generated and several cytokines are released. The AMLR constitute a cellular network in which helper T lymphocytes, proliferating upon stimulation by non-T cells or activated T cells, amplify the immune response. At the same time suppressor T lymphocytes are activated, by a feed-back mechanism, which regulates the activation of the immune system. Such reactions operate also in vivo in the following conditions: a) in vivo activated HLA class II-positive T cells can stimulate in vivo autologous resting T lymphocytes: b) the in vivo administration of drugs can affect the AMLR responses in humans; c) the AMLR responses are impaired in several diseases. In patients infected by HIV the AMLR responses are severely impaired from the early stage of the HIV infection before other immune defects, such as the decrease of CD4+ cells, might be detectable. Such an impairment could account (at least in part) for the defective immune responses frequently found in HIV-infected subjects before they develop full blown AIDS.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationArchives of AIDS Research
Number of pages24
Publication statusPublished - 1989

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Immunology and Allergy


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