Current surgical treatments for osteochondral (OC) lesions of the talus typically result in a suboptimal fibrous/fibrocartilaginous repair tissue and in not-convincing clinical long-term results. Tissue-engineering strategies have the potential to overcome this limitation. These techniques are based on the use of a biomaterial that supports tissue growth, called "scaffold," in both cell-free and cell-based approaches. Cell-free scaffolds have already entered clinical practice, but only short-term clinical data are available to date. Cell-based strategies already available for clinical use are limited to cartilage and are not yet suitable for OC regeneration. However, several engineered OC models have been reported in the literature and are currently under investigation. Most of the current and future strategies are designed for the regeneration of the knee articular surface, whereas the articular cartilage of the talus differs from that of the knee with respect to tissue morphology, biochemical composition, and biomechanical features. In this review, we will report some relevant current and experimental tissue-engineering strategies for OC lesions with a special focus on the regeneration of the articular surface of the talus.
- Tissue engineering
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Orthopedics and Sports Medicine