Automatic spatial coding of perceived gaze direction is revealed by the Simon effect

Marco Zorzi, Daniela Mapelli, Elena Rusconi, Carlo Umiltà

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

43 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

In a typical Simon task, the (irrelevant) spatial position of the stimulus interferes with the processing of the salient characteristic (e.g., color). We used the Simon effect to investigate the automatic processing of gaze cues. We show that a simple drawing of schematic eyes automatically generates a spatially defined code of gaze direction. Although completely irrelevant to the task, direction of gaze influenced reaction times in a spatially selective two-choice discrimination based on eye color. Moreover, in one experiment employing an orthogonal manipulation of stimulus position and gaze direction, we found that coding of gaze direction is independent of stimulus spatial coding. Our finding of a "gaze-direction Simon effect" is congruent with the hypothesis that gaze direction is coded by a specialized mechanism.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)423-429
Number of pages7
JournalPsychonomic Bulletin and Review
Volume10
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - Jun 2003

Fingerprint

Eye Color
Reaction Time
Cues
Direction compound
Color
Stimulus
Discrimination (Psychology)
Experiment
Salient
Automatic Processing
Manipulation
Discrimination

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Psychology(all)
  • Experimental and Cognitive Psychology
  • Psychology (miscellaneous)

Cite this

Zorzi, M., Mapelli, D., Rusconi, E., & Umiltà, C. (2003). Automatic spatial coding of perceived gaze direction is revealed by the Simon effect. Psychonomic Bulletin and Review, 10(2), 423-429.

Automatic spatial coding of perceived gaze direction is revealed by the Simon effect. / Zorzi, Marco; Mapelli, Daniela; Rusconi, Elena; Umiltà, Carlo.

In: Psychonomic Bulletin and Review, Vol. 10, No. 2, 06.2003, p. 423-429.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Zorzi, M, Mapelli, D, Rusconi, E & Umiltà, C 2003, 'Automatic spatial coding of perceived gaze direction is revealed by the Simon effect', Psychonomic Bulletin and Review, vol. 10, no. 2, pp. 423-429.
Zorzi, Marco ; Mapelli, Daniela ; Rusconi, Elena ; Umiltà, Carlo. / Automatic spatial coding of perceived gaze direction is revealed by the Simon effect. In: Psychonomic Bulletin and Review. 2003 ; Vol. 10, No. 2. pp. 423-429.
@article{fc8f0ef4787b42e1957e2e2ec0f4d817,
title = "Automatic spatial coding of perceived gaze direction is revealed by the Simon effect",
abstract = "In a typical Simon task, the (irrelevant) spatial position of the stimulus interferes with the processing of the salient characteristic (e.g., color). We used the Simon effect to investigate the automatic processing of gaze cues. We show that a simple drawing of schematic eyes automatically generates a spatially defined code of gaze direction. Although completely irrelevant to the task, direction of gaze influenced reaction times in a spatially selective two-choice discrimination based on eye color. Moreover, in one experiment employing an orthogonal manipulation of stimulus position and gaze direction, we found that coding of gaze direction is independent of stimulus spatial coding. Our finding of a {"}gaze-direction Simon effect{"} is congruent with the hypothesis that gaze direction is coded by a specialized mechanism.",
author = "Marco Zorzi and Daniela Mapelli and Elena Rusconi and Carlo Umilt{\`a}",
year = "2003",
month = "6",
language = "English",
volume = "10",
pages = "423--429",
journal = "Psychonomic Bulletin and Review",
issn = "1069-9384",
publisher = "Springer New York",
number = "2",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Automatic spatial coding of perceived gaze direction is revealed by the Simon effect

AU - Zorzi, Marco

AU - Mapelli, Daniela

AU - Rusconi, Elena

AU - Umiltà, Carlo

PY - 2003/6

Y1 - 2003/6

N2 - In a typical Simon task, the (irrelevant) spatial position of the stimulus interferes with the processing of the salient characteristic (e.g., color). We used the Simon effect to investigate the automatic processing of gaze cues. We show that a simple drawing of schematic eyes automatically generates a spatially defined code of gaze direction. Although completely irrelevant to the task, direction of gaze influenced reaction times in a spatially selective two-choice discrimination based on eye color. Moreover, in one experiment employing an orthogonal manipulation of stimulus position and gaze direction, we found that coding of gaze direction is independent of stimulus spatial coding. Our finding of a "gaze-direction Simon effect" is congruent with the hypothesis that gaze direction is coded by a specialized mechanism.

AB - In a typical Simon task, the (irrelevant) spatial position of the stimulus interferes with the processing of the salient characteristic (e.g., color). We used the Simon effect to investigate the automatic processing of gaze cues. We show that a simple drawing of schematic eyes automatically generates a spatially defined code of gaze direction. Although completely irrelevant to the task, direction of gaze influenced reaction times in a spatially selective two-choice discrimination based on eye color. Moreover, in one experiment employing an orthogonal manipulation of stimulus position and gaze direction, we found that coding of gaze direction is independent of stimulus spatial coding. Our finding of a "gaze-direction Simon effect" is congruent with the hypothesis that gaze direction is coded by a specialized mechanism.

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0347532956&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0347532956&partnerID=8YFLogxK

M3 - Article

VL - 10

SP - 423

EP - 429

JO - Psychonomic Bulletin and Review

JF - Psychonomic Bulletin and Review

SN - 1069-9384

IS - 2

ER -