Autophagy controls neonatal myogenesis by regulating the GH-IGF1 system through a NFE2L2- and DDIT3-mediated mechanism

Silvia Zecchini, Matteo Giovarelli, Cristiana Perrotta, Federica Morisi, Thierry Touvier, Ilaria Di Renzo, Claudia Moscheni, Maria Teresa Bassi, Davide Cervia, Marco Sandri, Emilio Clementi, Clara De Palma

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

3 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Macroautophagy/autophagy is emerging as an important process in adult muscle stem cells functions: it regulates metabolic reprogramming during activation from a quiescent state, maintains stemness and prevents senescence. We now show that autophagy is specifically required for neonatal myogenesis and muscle development. Specific deletion of Atg7 in PAX7+ (paired box 7) precursors led in mice to a dwarf phenotype, with an effect restricted to the neonatal phase of muscle development. Atg7 knockdown suppressed neonatal satellite cell (nSC) proliferation and differentiation, downregulating the GH-IGF1 functions. When we disrupted autophagy, NFE2L2/NRF2 (nuclear factor, erythroid 2 like 2) accumulated in muscle and nSCs and negatively modulated DDIT3/CHOP (DNA-damage inducible transcript 3) expression. Lower levels of DDIT3 were responsible for reduced GHR expression leading to impaired local production of IGF1. Our results conclusively identify a novel autophagy-dependent pathway that regulates nSC behavior and indicate that autophagy is required for skeletal muscle development in the neonatal phase. Abbreviations: AKT/protein kinase B: Thymoma viral proto-oncogene; ASCs: adult stem cells; ATF4: activating transcription factor 4; ATG7: autophagy related 7; BAT: brown adipose tissue; BMP: bone morphogenetic protein; CEBPB: CCAAT/enhancer binding protein (C/EBP), beta; CSA: cross sectional area; CTNNB1: catenin (cadherin associated protein), beta 1; DDIT3: DNA-damage inducible transcript 3; DM: differentiation medium; E: embryonic stage; EIF2AK3/PERK; EIF4EBP1: eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2 alpha kinase 3; eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E binding protein 1; ER: endoplasmic reticulum; FGF21: fibroblast growth factor 21; GH: growth hormone; GHR: growth hormone receptor; HSCs: hematopoietic stem cells; IGF1: insulin-like growth factor 1; ITGAM: integrin alpha M; KEAP1: kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1; LY6A/Sca-1; MAP1LC3: lymphocyte antigen 6 complex, locus A; microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3; MAPK1/ERK2: mitogen-activated protein kinase 1; MAPK3/ERK1: mitogen-activated protein kinase 3; miRNAs: microRNAs; MSCs: mesenchymal stem cells; MTOR: mechanistic target of rapamycin kinase; mtUPR: mitochondrial unfolded protein response; MYF5: myogenic factor 5; MYH: myosin, heavy polypeptide; MYOD1: myogenic differentiation 1; MYOG: myogenin; NFE2L2: nuclear factor, erythroid derived 2, like 2; nSC: neonatal satellite cells; NSCs: neuronal stem cells; P: postnatal day; PAX7: paired box 7; PECAM1: platelet/endothelial cell adhesion molecule 1; PPARG: peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma; PTPRC: protein tyrosine phosphatase, receptor type, C; ROS: reactive oxygen species; RPS6: ribosomal protein S6; SCs: adult satellite cells; SQSTM1: sequestosome 1; STAT5: signal transducer and activator of transcription 5; TGFB1: transforming growth factor beta 1; WAT: white adipose tissue; WT: wild type.

Original languageEnglish
JournalAutophagy
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2019

Fingerprint

Muscle Development
Autophagy
Activating Transcription Factor 4
Eukaryotic Initiation Factors
Adult Stem Cells
Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 3
Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 1
MicroRNAs
Myogenic Regulatory Factor 5
DNA Damage
CD11b Antigens
Phosphotransferases
Eukaryotic Initiation Factor-2
Ribosomal Protein S6
Eukaryotic Initiation Factor-4E
STAT5 Transcription Factor
CCAAT-Enhancer-Binding Protein-beta
CD31 Antigens
CD45 Antigens
Myogenin

Keywords

  • DDIT3
  • development
  • dwarf mice
  • GHR
  • muscle
  • NFE2L2
  • satellite cells

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Molecular Biology
  • Cell Biology

Cite this

Autophagy controls neonatal myogenesis by regulating the GH-IGF1 system through a NFE2L2- and DDIT3-mediated mechanism. / Zecchini, Silvia; Giovarelli, Matteo; Perrotta, Cristiana; Morisi, Federica; Touvier, Thierry; Di Renzo, Ilaria; Moscheni, Claudia; Bassi, Maria Teresa; Cervia, Davide; Sandri, Marco; Clementi, Emilio; De Palma, Clara.

In: Autophagy, 2019.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Zecchini, S, Giovarelli, M, Perrotta, C, Morisi, F, Touvier, T, Di Renzo, I, Moscheni, C, Bassi, MT, Cervia, D, Sandri, M, Clementi, E & De Palma, C 2019, 'Autophagy controls neonatal myogenesis by regulating the GH-IGF1 system through a NFE2L2- and DDIT3-mediated mechanism', Autophagy. https://doi.org/10.1080/15548627.2018.1507439
Zecchini, Silvia ; Giovarelli, Matteo ; Perrotta, Cristiana ; Morisi, Federica ; Touvier, Thierry ; Di Renzo, Ilaria ; Moscheni, Claudia ; Bassi, Maria Teresa ; Cervia, Davide ; Sandri, Marco ; Clementi, Emilio ; De Palma, Clara. / Autophagy controls neonatal myogenesis by regulating the GH-IGF1 system through a NFE2L2- and DDIT3-mediated mechanism. In: Autophagy. 2019.
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T1 - Autophagy controls neonatal myogenesis by regulating the GH-IGF1 system through a NFE2L2- and DDIT3-mediated mechanism

AU - Zecchini, Silvia

AU - Giovarelli, Matteo

AU - Perrotta, Cristiana

AU - Morisi, Federica

AU - Touvier, Thierry

AU - Di Renzo, Ilaria

AU - Moscheni, Claudia

AU - Bassi, Maria Teresa

AU - Cervia, Davide

AU - Sandri, Marco

AU - Clementi, Emilio

AU - De Palma, Clara

PY - 2019

Y1 - 2019

N2 - Macroautophagy/autophagy is emerging as an important process in adult muscle stem cells functions: it regulates metabolic reprogramming during activation from a quiescent state, maintains stemness and prevents senescence. We now show that autophagy is specifically required for neonatal myogenesis and muscle development. Specific deletion of Atg7 in PAX7+ (paired box 7) precursors led in mice to a dwarf phenotype, with an effect restricted to the neonatal phase of muscle development. Atg7 knockdown suppressed neonatal satellite cell (nSC) proliferation and differentiation, downregulating the GH-IGF1 functions. When we disrupted autophagy, NFE2L2/NRF2 (nuclear factor, erythroid 2 like 2) accumulated in muscle and nSCs and negatively modulated DDIT3/CHOP (DNA-damage inducible transcript 3) expression. Lower levels of DDIT3 were responsible for reduced GHR expression leading to impaired local production of IGF1. Our results conclusively identify a novel autophagy-dependent pathway that regulates nSC behavior and indicate that autophagy is required for skeletal muscle development in the neonatal phase. Abbreviations: AKT/protein kinase B: Thymoma viral proto-oncogene; ASCs: adult stem cells; ATF4: activating transcription factor 4; ATG7: autophagy related 7; BAT: brown adipose tissue; BMP: bone morphogenetic protein; CEBPB: CCAAT/enhancer binding protein (C/EBP), beta; CSA: cross sectional area; CTNNB1: catenin (cadherin associated protein), beta 1; DDIT3: DNA-damage inducible transcript 3; DM: differentiation medium; E: embryonic stage; EIF2AK3/PERK; EIF4EBP1: eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2 alpha kinase 3; eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E binding protein 1; ER: endoplasmic reticulum; FGF21: fibroblast growth factor 21; GH: growth hormone; GHR: growth hormone receptor; HSCs: hematopoietic stem cells; IGF1: insulin-like growth factor 1; ITGAM: integrin alpha M; KEAP1: kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1; LY6A/Sca-1; MAP1LC3: lymphocyte antigen 6 complex, locus A; microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3; MAPK1/ERK2: mitogen-activated protein kinase 1; MAPK3/ERK1: mitogen-activated protein kinase 3; miRNAs: microRNAs; MSCs: mesenchymal stem cells; MTOR: mechanistic target of rapamycin kinase; mtUPR: mitochondrial unfolded protein response; MYF5: myogenic factor 5; MYH: myosin, heavy polypeptide; MYOD1: myogenic differentiation 1; MYOG: myogenin; NFE2L2: nuclear factor, erythroid derived 2, like 2; nSC: neonatal satellite cells; NSCs: neuronal stem cells; P: postnatal day; PAX7: paired box 7; PECAM1: platelet/endothelial cell adhesion molecule 1; PPARG: peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma; PTPRC: protein tyrosine phosphatase, receptor type, C; ROS: reactive oxygen species; RPS6: ribosomal protein S6; SCs: adult satellite cells; SQSTM1: sequestosome 1; STAT5: signal transducer and activator of transcription 5; TGFB1: transforming growth factor beta 1; WAT: white adipose tissue; WT: wild type.

AB - Macroautophagy/autophagy is emerging as an important process in adult muscle stem cells functions: it regulates metabolic reprogramming during activation from a quiescent state, maintains stemness and prevents senescence. We now show that autophagy is specifically required for neonatal myogenesis and muscle development. Specific deletion of Atg7 in PAX7+ (paired box 7) precursors led in mice to a dwarf phenotype, with an effect restricted to the neonatal phase of muscle development. Atg7 knockdown suppressed neonatal satellite cell (nSC) proliferation and differentiation, downregulating the GH-IGF1 functions. When we disrupted autophagy, NFE2L2/NRF2 (nuclear factor, erythroid 2 like 2) accumulated in muscle and nSCs and negatively modulated DDIT3/CHOP (DNA-damage inducible transcript 3) expression. Lower levels of DDIT3 were responsible for reduced GHR expression leading to impaired local production of IGF1. Our results conclusively identify a novel autophagy-dependent pathway that regulates nSC behavior and indicate that autophagy is required for skeletal muscle development in the neonatal phase. Abbreviations: AKT/protein kinase B: Thymoma viral proto-oncogene; ASCs: adult stem cells; ATF4: activating transcription factor 4; ATG7: autophagy related 7; BAT: brown adipose tissue; BMP: bone morphogenetic protein; CEBPB: CCAAT/enhancer binding protein (C/EBP), beta; CSA: cross sectional area; CTNNB1: catenin (cadherin associated protein), beta 1; DDIT3: DNA-damage inducible transcript 3; DM: differentiation medium; E: embryonic stage; EIF2AK3/PERK; EIF4EBP1: eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2 alpha kinase 3; eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E binding protein 1; ER: endoplasmic reticulum; FGF21: fibroblast growth factor 21; GH: growth hormone; GHR: growth hormone receptor; HSCs: hematopoietic stem cells; IGF1: insulin-like growth factor 1; ITGAM: integrin alpha M; KEAP1: kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1; LY6A/Sca-1; MAP1LC3: lymphocyte antigen 6 complex, locus A; microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3; MAPK1/ERK2: mitogen-activated protein kinase 1; MAPK3/ERK1: mitogen-activated protein kinase 3; miRNAs: microRNAs; MSCs: mesenchymal stem cells; MTOR: mechanistic target of rapamycin kinase; mtUPR: mitochondrial unfolded protein response; MYF5: myogenic factor 5; MYH: myosin, heavy polypeptide; MYOD1: myogenic differentiation 1; MYOG: myogenin; NFE2L2: nuclear factor, erythroid derived 2, like 2; nSC: neonatal satellite cells; NSCs: neuronal stem cells; P: postnatal day; PAX7: paired box 7; PECAM1: platelet/endothelial cell adhesion molecule 1; PPARG: peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma; PTPRC: protein tyrosine phosphatase, receptor type, C; ROS: reactive oxygen species; RPS6: ribosomal protein S6; SCs: adult satellite cells; SQSTM1: sequestosome 1; STAT5: signal transducer and activator of transcription 5; TGFB1: transforming growth factor beta 1; WAT: white adipose tissue; WT: wild type.

KW - DDIT3

KW - development

KW - dwarf mice

KW - GHR

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KW - NFE2L2

KW - satellite cells

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