Axillary lymph node dissection versus no dissection in patients with T1N0 breast cancer: A randomized clinical trial (INT09/98)

Roberto Agresti, Gabriele Martelli, Marco Sandri, Elda Tagliabue, Maria Luisa Carcangiu, Ilaria Maugeri, Cristina Pellitteri, Cristina Ferraris, Giuseppe Capri, Angela Moliterni, Giulia Bianchi, Gabriella Mariani, Giovanna Trecate, Laura Lozza, Martin Langer, Mario Rampa, Massimiliano Gennaro, Marco Greco, Sylvie Menard, Marco A. Pierotti

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

BACKGROUND Although axillary surgery is still considered to be a fundamental part of the management of early breast cancer, it may no longer be necessary either as treatment or as a guide to adjuvant treatment. The authors conducted a single-center randomized trial (INT09/98) to determine the impact of avoiding axillary surgery in patients with T1N0 breast cancer and planning chemotherapy based on biological factors of the primary tumor on long-term disease control. METHODS From June 1998 to June 2003, 565 patients aged 30 years to 65 years with T1N0 breast cancer were randomized to either quadrantectomy with (QUAD) or without (QU) axillary lymph node dissection; a total of 517 patients finally were evaluated. All patients received radiotherapy to the residual breast only. Chemotherapy for patients in the QUAD treatment arm was determined based on lymph node status, estrogen receptor status, and tumor grade. Chemotherapy for patients in the QU treatment arm was based on estrogen receptor status, tumor grade, and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 and laminin receptor status. Overall survival (OS) was the primary endpoint. Disease-free survival (DFS) and rate and time of axillary lymph node recurrence in the QU treatment arm were the secondary endpoints. RESULTS After a median follow-up of >10 years, the estimated adjusted hazards ratio of the QUAD versus QU treatment arms for OS was 1.09 (95% confidence interval, 0.59-2.00; P =.783) and was 1.04 (95% confidence interval, 0.56-1.94; P =.898) for DFS. Of the 245 patients in the QU treatment arm, 22 (9.0%) experienced axillary lymph node recurrence. The median time to axillary lymph node recurrence from breast surgery was 30.0 months (interquartile range, 24.2 months-73.4 months). CONCLUSIONS Patients with T1N0 breast cancer did not appear to benefit in terms of DFS and OS from immediate axillary lymph node dissection in the current randomized trial. The biological characteristics of the primary tumor appear adequate for guiding adjuvant treatment. Cancer 2014;120:885-893.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)885-893
Number of pages9
JournalCancer
Volume120
Issue number6
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Mar 15 2014

Keywords

  • adjuvant treatment
  • axillary surgery
  • biological prognostic factors
  • breast cancer
  • clinical trial

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cancer Research
  • Oncology

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