BAL cytokine profile in different interstitial lung diseases: A focus on systemic sclerosis

Federica Meloni, Roberto Caporali, Alessia Marone Bianco, Enrica Paschetto, Monica Morosini, Anna Maria Fietta, Vitulo Patrizio, Francesca Bobbio-Pallavicini, Ernesto Pozzi, Carlomaurizio Montecucco

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Abstract

Background and aim: Fibrosing alveolitis develops in up to 80% of systemic sclerosis patients (SSc) but progression to end stage fibrosis occurs in about 15% of cases. Mechanisms leading to the process remain mostly unknown. We compared cytokine profiles of broncho-alveolar lavage fluids (BAL-f) from patients with SSc associated interstitial lung disease (SSc-ILD) (n. 34), idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) (n. 13), stage II sarcoidosis (n. 14) and 9 controls. Methods: Interleukin (IL) 8, monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1), gamma-interferon (IFN-γ), IL 12, IL 18 and IL 10 and transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) were assessed by ELISA in concentrated BAL-f. Results: Levels of IL8 and MCP-1 were significantly elevated in SSc-ILD and in IPF as compared with controls (Mann Whitney test p <0.05), while MCP-1 values were significantly lower in SSc-ILD than in IPF. A significant correlation between neutrophils and IL8 levels (p = 0.047), as well as between eosinophils and MCP-1 levels (p = 0.004) was also observed. IFN-γ levels were slightly higher than normal only in sarcoidosis (p = 0.06), whereas IL12 levels increased both in sarcoidosis and SSc-ILD (p <0.05). No differences were found in IL18 and TGF-β levels. Finally, IL10 levels were higher in SSc-ILD and sarcoidosis than in controls and IPF (p <0.05). Conclusion: BAL-f cytokine profile differentiates ILD associated with SSc from IPF. The lower expression of MCP-1 and the higher expression of the anti-fibrotic IL12 and the anti-inflammatory IL10, observed both in sarcoidosis and in SSc-ILD, could account for the better prognosis of these ILDs. Further longitudinal studies are required to confirm whether a different cytokine phenotype may be considered predictive of clinical outcome in SSc-ILD.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)111-118
Number of pages8
JournalSarcoidosis Vasculitis and Diffuse Lung Diseases
Volume21
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - Jun 2004

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Dimercaprol
Systemic Scleroderma
Interstitial Lung Diseases
Cytokines
Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis
Chemokine CCL2
Sarcoidosis
Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid
Interleukin-12
Interleukin-8
Interleukin-10
Interleukin-18
Transforming Growth Factor beta
Pulmonary Fibrosis
Eosinophils
Interferon-gamma
Longitudinal Studies
Neutrophils
Fibrosis
Anti-Inflammatory Agents

Keywords

  • BAL-fluid
  • Cytokines
  • Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis
  • Interstitial lung disease
  • Sarcoidosis
  • Systemic sclerosis

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pulmonary and Respiratory Medicine

Cite this

@article{c8375cb2a9a14b8fbb4770a210ffe459,
title = "BAL cytokine profile in different interstitial lung diseases: A focus on systemic sclerosis",
abstract = "Background and aim: Fibrosing alveolitis develops in up to 80{\%} of systemic sclerosis patients (SSc) but progression to end stage fibrosis occurs in about 15{\%} of cases. Mechanisms leading to the process remain mostly unknown. We compared cytokine profiles of broncho-alveolar lavage fluids (BAL-f) from patients with SSc associated interstitial lung disease (SSc-ILD) (n. 34), idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) (n. 13), stage II sarcoidosis (n. 14) and 9 controls. Methods: Interleukin (IL) 8, monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1), gamma-interferon (IFN-γ), IL 12, IL 18 and IL 10 and transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) were assessed by ELISA in concentrated BAL-f. Results: Levels of IL8 and MCP-1 were significantly elevated in SSc-ILD and in IPF as compared with controls (Mann Whitney test p <0.05), while MCP-1 values were significantly lower in SSc-ILD than in IPF. A significant correlation between neutrophils and IL8 levels (p = 0.047), as well as between eosinophils and MCP-1 levels (p = 0.004) was also observed. IFN-γ levels were slightly higher than normal only in sarcoidosis (p = 0.06), whereas IL12 levels increased both in sarcoidosis and SSc-ILD (p <0.05). No differences were found in IL18 and TGF-β levels. Finally, IL10 levels were higher in SSc-ILD and sarcoidosis than in controls and IPF (p <0.05). Conclusion: BAL-f cytokine profile differentiates ILD associated with SSc from IPF. The lower expression of MCP-1 and the higher expression of the anti-fibrotic IL12 and the anti-inflammatory IL10, observed both in sarcoidosis and in SSc-ILD, could account for the better prognosis of these ILDs. Further longitudinal studies are required to confirm whether a different cytokine phenotype may be considered predictive of clinical outcome in SSc-ILD.",
keywords = "BAL-fluid, Cytokines, Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, Interstitial lung disease, Sarcoidosis, Systemic sclerosis",
author = "Federica Meloni and Roberto Caporali and Bianco, {Alessia Marone} and Enrica Paschetto and Monica Morosini and Fietta, {Anna Maria} and Vitulo Patrizio and Francesca Bobbio-Pallavicini and Ernesto Pozzi and Carlomaurizio Montecucco",
year = "2004",
month = "6",
language = "English",
volume = "21",
pages = "111--118",
journal = "Sarcoidosis Vasculitis and Diffuse Lung Diseases",
issn = "1124-0490",
publisher = "Mattioli 1885 S.p.A.",
number = "2",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - BAL cytokine profile in different interstitial lung diseases

T2 - A focus on systemic sclerosis

AU - Meloni, Federica

AU - Caporali, Roberto

AU - Bianco, Alessia Marone

AU - Paschetto, Enrica

AU - Morosini, Monica

AU - Fietta, Anna Maria

AU - Patrizio, Vitulo

AU - Bobbio-Pallavicini, Francesca

AU - Pozzi, Ernesto

AU - Montecucco, Carlomaurizio

PY - 2004/6

Y1 - 2004/6

N2 - Background and aim: Fibrosing alveolitis develops in up to 80% of systemic sclerosis patients (SSc) but progression to end stage fibrosis occurs in about 15% of cases. Mechanisms leading to the process remain mostly unknown. We compared cytokine profiles of broncho-alveolar lavage fluids (BAL-f) from patients with SSc associated interstitial lung disease (SSc-ILD) (n. 34), idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) (n. 13), stage II sarcoidosis (n. 14) and 9 controls. Methods: Interleukin (IL) 8, monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1), gamma-interferon (IFN-γ), IL 12, IL 18 and IL 10 and transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) were assessed by ELISA in concentrated BAL-f. Results: Levels of IL8 and MCP-1 were significantly elevated in SSc-ILD and in IPF as compared with controls (Mann Whitney test p <0.05), while MCP-1 values were significantly lower in SSc-ILD than in IPF. A significant correlation between neutrophils and IL8 levels (p = 0.047), as well as between eosinophils and MCP-1 levels (p = 0.004) was also observed. IFN-γ levels were slightly higher than normal only in sarcoidosis (p = 0.06), whereas IL12 levels increased both in sarcoidosis and SSc-ILD (p <0.05). No differences were found in IL18 and TGF-β levels. Finally, IL10 levels were higher in SSc-ILD and sarcoidosis than in controls and IPF (p <0.05). Conclusion: BAL-f cytokine profile differentiates ILD associated with SSc from IPF. The lower expression of MCP-1 and the higher expression of the anti-fibrotic IL12 and the anti-inflammatory IL10, observed both in sarcoidosis and in SSc-ILD, could account for the better prognosis of these ILDs. Further longitudinal studies are required to confirm whether a different cytokine phenotype may be considered predictive of clinical outcome in SSc-ILD.

AB - Background and aim: Fibrosing alveolitis develops in up to 80% of systemic sclerosis patients (SSc) but progression to end stage fibrosis occurs in about 15% of cases. Mechanisms leading to the process remain mostly unknown. We compared cytokine profiles of broncho-alveolar lavage fluids (BAL-f) from patients with SSc associated interstitial lung disease (SSc-ILD) (n. 34), idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) (n. 13), stage II sarcoidosis (n. 14) and 9 controls. Methods: Interleukin (IL) 8, monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1), gamma-interferon (IFN-γ), IL 12, IL 18 and IL 10 and transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) were assessed by ELISA in concentrated BAL-f. Results: Levels of IL8 and MCP-1 were significantly elevated in SSc-ILD and in IPF as compared with controls (Mann Whitney test p <0.05), while MCP-1 values were significantly lower in SSc-ILD than in IPF. A significant correlation between neutrophils and IL8 levels (p = 0.047), as well as between eosinophils and MCP-1 levels (p = 0.004) was also observed. IFN-γ levels were slightly higher than normal only in sarcoidosis (p = 0.06), whereas IL12 levels increased both in sarcoidosis and SSc-ILD (p <0.05). No differences were found in IL18 and TGF-β levels. Finally, IL10 levels were higher in SSc-ILD and sarcoidosis than in controls and IPF (p <0.05). Conclusion: BAL-f cytokine profile differentiates ILD associated with SSc from IPF. The lower expression of MCP-1 and the higher expression of the anti-fibrotic IL12 and the anti-inflammatory IL10, observed both in sarcoidosis and in SSc-ILD, could account for the better prognosis of these ILDs. Further longitudinal studies are required to confirm whether a different cytokine phenotype may be considered predictive of clinical outcome in SSc-ILD.

KW - BAL-fluid

KW - Cytokines

KW - Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis

KW - Interstitial lung disease

KW - Sarcoidosis

KW - Systemic sclerosis

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M3 - Article

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