Basal ganglia network by constrained spherical deconvolution: A possible cortico-pallidal pathway?

Demetrio Milardi, Michele Gaeta, Silvia Marino, Alessandro Arrigo, Gianluigi Vaccarino, Enricomaria Mormina, Giuseppina Rizzo, Carmelo Milazzo, Giovanni Finocchio, Annalisa Baglieri, Giuseppe Anastasi, Angelo Quartarone

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


In the recent past, basal ganglia circuitry was simplified as represented by the direct and indirect pathways and by hyperdirect pathways. Based on data from animal studies, we hypothesized a fourth pathway, the cortico-pallidal, pathway, that complements the hyperdirect pathway to the subthalamus. Ten normal brains were analyzed by using the high angular resolution diffusion imaging-constrained spherical deconvolution (CSD)-based technique. The study was performed with a 3T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanner (Achieva, Philips Healthcare, Best, Netherlands); by using a 32-channel SENSE head coil. We showed that CSD is a powerful technique that allows a fine evaluation of both the long and small tracts between cortex and basal ganglia, including direct, indirect, and hyperdirect pathways. In addition, a pathway directly connecting the cortex to the globus pallidus was seen. Our results confirm that the CSD tractography is a valuable technique allowing a reliable reconstruction of small- and long-fiber pathways in brain regions with multiple fiber orientations, such as basal ganglia. This could open a future scenario in which CSD could be used to focally target with deep brain stimulation (DBS) the small bundles within the basal ganglia loops.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)342-349
Number of pages8
JournalMovement Disorders
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - Mar 1 2015


  • Basal ganglia
  • Brain
  • CSD
  • Subthalamic nucleus
  • Tractography

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Clinical Neurology
  • Neurology
  • Medicine(all)


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