Battery drain in daily practice and medium-term projections on longevity of cardioverterdefibrillators: An analysis from a remote monitoring database

Giuseppe Boriani, Philippe Ritter, Mauro Biffi, Matteo Ziacchi, Igor Diemberger, Cristian Martignani, Cinzia Valzania, Sergio Valsecchi, Luigi Padeletti, Fredrik Gadler

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Aims The longevity of generators is a crucial determinant of the cost-effectiveness of therapy with implantable cardioverterdefibrillators (ICDs) and cardiac resynchronization therapy defibrillators (CRT-D). We evaluated the trend of devicemeasured residual battery capacity and longevity projections over 5-year follow-up.We also investigated possible factors associated with battery drain. Methods and results Data from 4851 patients in the European LATITUDEw database who were followed up for a minimum of 3 years were analysed. The factors associated with battery drain (i.e. year-to-year decrease in residual battery capacity), and thus potentially impacting on device longevity, were mainly the pacing parameters in CRT-D devices and the number of shocks delivered and diverted in both ICD and CRT-D (all P < 0.01 on linear regression analysis). Over the first 5 years, the longevity estimates provided by devices showed low intra-patient variability and increased with time. The estimates exceeded 10 years for CRT-Dand 13 and 12 years for single- and dual-chamber ICDs, respectively. In CRT-D patients, the expected patient age on replacement was 80±12 years, and the expected probability of undergoing device replacement was 63±13% for New York Heart Association (NYHA) II patients and 37±16% for NYHA III patients. For comparison, the probabilities of replacing a CRT-D lasting 5 years were 78±8 and 59±13%, respectively (both P, 0.001). Conclusion Battery drain was mainly associated with pacing output in CRT-D devices and with the number of capacitor charges in both ICD and CRT-D devices. The longevity estimates provided by the devices were consistent and conservative. According to these estimates, among CRT-D recipients a low proportion of patients should require device replacement.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1366-1373
Number of pages8
Issue number9
Publication statusPublished - 2016


  • Battery
  • Cardiac resynchronization therapy
  • Implantable cardioverter-defibrillator
  • Longevity
  • Remote monitoring

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine
  • Physiology (medical)


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