Beta-arrestin 2 is required for dopamine receptor type 2 inhibitory effects on AKT phosphorylation and cell proliferation in pituitary tumors

Federica Mangili, Elena Giardino, Donatella Treppiedi, Anna Maria Barbieri, Rosa Catalano, Marco Locatelli, Andrea Gerardo Lania, Anna Spada, Maura Arosio, Giovanna Mantovani, Erika Peverelli

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Dopamine receptor type 2 (DRD2) agonists are the first-choice treatment for prolactin-secreting pituitary tumors but are poorly effective in nonfunctioning pituitary neuroendocrine tumors (NF-PitNETs). DRD2 reduces AKT phosphorylation in lactotrophs, but no data are available in NF-PitNETs. DRD2 effects on AKT are mediated by a β-arrestin 2-dependent mechanism in mouse striatum. The aim of this study was to investigate DRD2 effects on AKT phosphorylation and cell proliferation in human primary cultured NF-PitNET cells and in rat tumoral lactotroph cells MMQ, and to test β-arrestin 2 involvement. We found that the DRD2 agonist BIM53097 induced a reduction of the p-AKT/total-AKT ratio in MMQ (-32.8 ± 17.6%, p < 0.001 vs. basal) and in a subset (n = 15/41, 36.6%) of NF-PitNETs (subgroup 1). In the remaining NF-PitNETs (subgroup 2), BIM53097 induced an increase in p-AKT. The ability of BIM53097 to reduce p-AKT correlated with its antimitotic effect, since the majority of subgroup 1 NF-PitNETs was responsive to BIM53097, and nearly all subgroup 2 NF-PitNETs were resistant. β-Arrestin 2 was expressed in MMQ and in 80% of subgroup 1 NF-PitNETs, whereas it was undetectable in 77% of subgroup 2 NF-PitNETs. In MMQ, β-arrestin 2 silencing prevented DRD2 inhibitory effects on p-AKT and cell proliferation. Accordingly, β-arrestin 2 transfection in subgroup 2 NF-PitNETs conferred to BIM53097 the ability to inhibit both p-AKT and cell growth. In conclusion, we demonstrated that β-arrestin 2 is required for DRD2 inhibitory effects on AKT phosphorylation and cell proliferation in MMQ and NF-PitNETs, paving the way for a potential role of β-arrestin 2 as a biomarker predicting NF-PitNETs' responsiveness to treatment with dopamine agonists.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)568-579
Number of pages12
JournalNeuroendocrinology
Volume111
Issue number6
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Jun 2021

Keywords

  • AKT
  • Dopamine receptor type 2
  • Nonfunctioning pituitary neuroendocrine tumors
  • Prolactin-secreting pituitary tumors
  • β-Arrestin 2

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
  • Endocrinology
  • Endocrine and Autonomic Systems
  • Cellular and Molecular Neuroscience

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