Beware of surrogate outcome measures

Peter C. Gøtzsche, Alessandro Liberati, Valter Torri, Luca Rossetti

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Surrogate outcome measures may speed up clinical research if they can be measured earlier in a study than the primary outcome of interest. We review the justification for their use and conclude that reliance on them may be harmful. Results obtained with surrogates should therefore be regarded as preliminary. Large, definitive trials with clinically relevant outcomes should always be performed before new interventions are accepted.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)238-246
Number of pages9
JournalInternational Journal of Technology Assessment in Health Care
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - Mar 1996

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine (miscellaneous)
  • Health Informatics
  • Health Information Management
  • Nursing(all)

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