For a proper assessment of osteoporotic fragility fracture prediction, all aspects regarding bone mineral density, bone texture, geometry and information about strength are necessary, particularly in endocrinological and rheumatological diseases, where bone quality impairment is relevant. Data regarding bone quantity (density) and, partially, bone quality (structure and geometry) are obtained by the gold standard method of dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Data about bone strength are not yet readily available. To evaluate bone resistance to strain, a new DXA-derived index based on the Finite Element Analysis (FEA) of a greyscale of density distribution measured on spine and femoral scan, namely Bone Strain Index (BSI), has recently been developed. Bone Strain Index includes local information on density distribution, bone geometry and loadings and it differs from bone mineral density (BMD) and other variables of bone quality like trabecular bone score (TBS), which are all based on the quantification of bone mass and distribution averaged over the scanned region. This state of the art review illustrates the methodology of BSI calculation, the findings of its in reproducibility and the preliminary data about its capability to predict fragility fracture and to monitor the follow up of the pharmacological treatment for osteoporosis.
- BMD (bone mineral density)
- BSI (bone strain index)
- DXA (dual x-ray absorptiometry)
- HSA (hip structural analysis)
- TBS (trabecular bone score)
ASJC Scopus subject areas