Bezlotoxumab for Preventing Recurrent Clostridioides difficile Infection: A Narrative Review from Pathophysiology to Clinical Studies

Daniele Roberto Giacobbe, Silvia Dettori, Stefano Di Bella, Antonio Vena, Guido Granata, Roberto Luzzati, Nicola Petrosillo, Matteo Bassetti

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

Abstract

Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI) and recurrent CDI (rCDI) remain associated with a reduction in the patients’ quality of life and with increased healthcare costs. Bezlotoxumab is a monoclonal antibody against toxin B of C. difficile, approved for prevention of rCDI. In this narrative review, we briefly discuss the pathophysiology of CDI and the mechanism of action of bezlotoxumab, as well as the available evidence from investigational and observational studies in terms of efficacy, effectiveness, and safety of bezlotoxumab for the prevention of rCDI. Overall, bezlotoxumab has proved efficacious in reducing the burden of rCDI, thereby providing clinicians with an important novel strategy to achieve sustained cure. Nonetheless, experiences outside randomized controlled trials (RCTs) remain scant, and mostly represented by case series without a control group. Along with the conduction of RCTs to directly compare bezlotoxumab with faecal microbiota transplantation (or to precisely evaluate the role of their combined use), further widening our post-marketing experience remains paramount to firmly guide the use of bezlotoxumab outside RCTs, and to clearly identify those real-life settings where its preventive benefits can be exploited most.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1-14
Number of pages14
JournalInfectious Diseases and Therapy
DOIs
Publication statusAccepted/In press - 2020

Keywords

  • Bezlotoxumab
  • CDI
  • Clostridioides
  • Clostridium
  • Healthcare-associated infections
  • Nosocomial infections
  • rCDI
  • Recurrence

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Microbiology (medical)
  • Infectious Diseases

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