Cholelithiasis is generally considered an uncommon disease in children. The frequency of pediatric gallstones, documented in studies conducted at the end of the eighties in which patients were selected according to initial symptoms, was reported to be between 0.13 and 0.22% [1, 2]. However, in recent years, following the extensive use of abdominal ultrasound scanning (AUS) in the pediatric population, an increasing number of children with cholelithiasis have been identified. In a population-based study, the prevalence of cholelithiasis retrospectively evaluated in 4,200 children submitted to AUS for different reasons, such as typical biliary symptoms, general abdominal symptoms or routinely check-ups, was 1.9% [1, 3]. Further, following the routine use of ultrasound examination during pregnancy, fetal gallstones are emerging as a new entity.
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