Biofunctionalized Scaffold in Bone Tissue Repair

Francesca Diomede, Marco D'Aurora, Agnese Gugliandolo, Ilaria Merciaro, Tiziana Orsini, Valentina Gatta, Adriano Piattelli, Oriana Trubiani, Emanuela Mazzon

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Bone tissue engineering is based on bone grafting to repair bone defects. Bone graft substitutes can contribute to the addition of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in order to enhance the rate and the quality of defect regeneration. The stem cell secretome contains many growth factors and chemokines, which could affect cellular characteristics and behavior. Conditioned medium (CM) could be used in tissue regeneration avoiding several problems linked to the direct use of MSCs. In this study, we investigated the effect of human periodontal ligament stem cells (hPDLSCs) and their CM on bone regeneration using a commercially available membrane scaffold Evolution (EVO) implanted in rat calvarias. EVO alone or EVO + hPDLSCs with or without CM were implanted in Wistar male rats subjected to calvarial defects. The in vivo results revealed that EVO membrane enriched with hPDLSCs and CM showed a better osteogenic ability to repair the calvarial defect. These results were confirmed by acquired micro-computed tomography (CT) images and the increased osteopontin levels. Moreover, RT-PCR in vitro revealed the upregulation of three genes (Collagen (COL)5A1, COL16A1 and transforming growth factor (TGF)β1) and the down regulation of 26 genes involved in bone regeneration. These results suggest a promising potential application of CM from hPDLSCs and scaffolds for bone defect restoration and in particular for calvarial repair in case of trauma.

Original languageEnglish
JournalInternational Journal of Molecular Sciences
Volume19
Issue number4
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Mar 29 2018

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Keywords

  • Animals
  • Antigens, Differentiation/biosynthesis
  • Bone Regeneration
  • Female
  • Heterografts
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation
  • Mesenchymal Stem Cells/metabolism
  • Periodontal Ligament/metabolism
  • Rats
  • Rats, Wistar
  • Skull/injuries
  • Tissue Engineering
  • Tissue Scaffolds/chemistry

Cite this

Diomede, F., D'Aurora, M., Gugliandolo, A., Merciaro, I., Orsini, T., Gatta, V., Piattelli, A., Trubiani, O., & Mazzon, E. (2018). Biofunctionalized Scaffold in Bone Tissue Repair. International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 19(4). https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19041022