Our view of cancer biology radically shifted from a “cancer-cell-centric” vision to a view of cancer as an organ disease. The concept that genetic and/or epigenetic alterations, at the basis of cancerogenesis, are the main if not the exclusive drivers of cancer development and the principal targets of therapy, has now evolved to include the tumor microenvironment in which tumor cells can grow, proliferate, survive, and metastasize only within a favorable environment. The interplay between cancer cells and the non-cellular and cellular components of the tumor microenvironment plays a fundamental role in tumor development and evolution both at the primary site and at the level of metastasis. The shape of the tumor cells and tumor mass is the resultant of several contrasting forces either pro-tumoral or anti-tumoral which have at the level of the tumor microenvironment their battle field. This crucial role of tumor microenvironment composition in cancer progression also dictates whether immunotherapy with immune checkpoint inhibitor antibodies is going to be efficacious. Hence, tumor microenvironment deconvolution has become of great relevance in order to identify biomarkers predictive of efficacy of immunotherapy. In this short paper we will briefly review the relationship between inflammation and cancer, and will summarize in 10 short points the key concepts learned so far and the open challenges to be solved.
- basic and preclinical research on biomarkers
- Inflammation and/or inflammatory cytokines
- tumor markers
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pathology and Forensic Medicine
- Clinical Biochemistry
- Cancer Research