Biomarkers in pediatric community-acquired pneumonia

Nicola Principi, Susanna Esposito

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

13 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is an infectious disease caused by bacteria, viruses, or a combination of these infectious agents. The severity of the clinical manifestations of CAP varies significantly. Consequently, both the differentiation of viral from bacterial CAP cases and the accurate assessment and prediction of disease severity are critical for effectively managing individuals with CAP. To solve questionable cases, several biomarkers indicating the etiology and severity of CAP have been studied. Unfortunately, only a few studies have examined the roles of these biomarkers in pediatric practice. The main aim of this paper is to detail current knowledge regarding the use of biomarkers to diagnose and treat CAP in children, analyzing the most recently published relevant studies. Despite several attempts, the etiologic diagnosis of pediatric CAP and the estimation of the potential outcome remain unsolved problems in most cases. Among traditional biomarkers, procalcitonin (PCT) appears to be the most effective for both selecting bacterial cases and evaluating the severity. However, a precise cut-off separating bacterial from viral and mild from severe cases has not been defined. The three-host protein assay based on C-reactive protein (CRP), tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL), plasma interferon-γ protein-10 (IP-10), and micro-array-based whole genome expression arrays might offer more advantages in comparison with former biomarkers. However, further studies are needed before the routine use of those presently in development can be recommended.

Original languageEnglish
Article number447
JournalInternational Journal of Molecular Sciences
Volume18
Issue number2
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Feb 19 2017

Fingerprint

pneumonia
Pediatrics
biomarkers
Biomarkers
Pneumonia
Proteins
proteins
Interferons
Calcitonin
Cell death
interferon
Viruses
etiology
C-Reactive Protein
Assays
Bacteria
genome
necrosis
apoptosis
Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha

Keywords

  • Biomarkers
  • C-reactive protein
  • Interferon-γ protein-10
  • Procalcitonin
  • Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Catalysis
  • Molecular Biology
  • Computer Science Applications
  • Spectroscopy
  • Physical and Theoretical Chemistry
  • Organic Chemistry
  • Inorganic Chemistry

Cite this

Biomarkers in pediatric community-acquired pneumonia. / Principi, Nicola; Esposito, Susanna.

In: International Journal of Molecular Sciences, Vol. 18, No. 2, 447, 19.02.2017.

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

Principi, Nicola ; Esposito, Susanna. / Biomarkers in pediatric community-acquired pneumonia. In: International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2017 ; Vol. 18, No. 2.
@article{6d891aa63f064ff2b28a09a65e221e5a,
title = "Biomarkers in pediatric community-acquired pneumonia",
abstract = "Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is an infectious disease caused by bacteria, viruses, or a combination of these infectious agents. The severity of the clinical manifestations of CAP varies significantly. Consequently, both the differentiation of viral from bacterial CAP cases and the accurate assessment and prediction of disease severity are critical for effectively managing individuals with CAP. To solve questionable cases, several biomarkers indicating the etiology and severity of CAP have been studied. Unfortunately, only a few studies have examined the roles of these biomarkers in pediatric practice. The main aim of this paper is to detail current knowledge regarding the use of biomarkers to diagnose and treat CAP in children, analyzing the most recently published relevant studies. Despite several attempts, the etiologic diagnosis of pediatric CAP and the estimation of the potential outcome remain unsolved problems in most cases. Among traditional biomarkers, procalcitonin (PCT) appears to be the most effective for both selecting bacterial cases and evaluating the severity. However, a precise cut-off separating bacterial from viral and mild from severe cases has not been defined. The three-host protein assay based on C-reactive protein (CRP), tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL), plasma interferon-γ protein-10 (IP-10), and micro-array-based whole genome expression arrays might offer more advantages in comparison with former biomarkers. However, further studies are needed before the routine use of those presently in development can be recommended.",
keywords = "Biomarkers, C-reactive protein, Interferon-γ protein-10, Procalcitonin, Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand",
author = "Nicola Principi and Susanna Esposito",
year = "2017",
month = "2",
day = "19",
doi = "10.3390/ijms18020447",
language = "English",
volume = "18",
journal = "International Journal of Molecular Sciences",
issn = "1661-6596",
publisher = "MDPI AG",
number = "2",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Biomarkers in pediatric community-acquired pneumonia

AU - Principi, Nicola

AU - Esposito, Susanna

PY - 2017/2/19

Y1 - 2017/2/19

N2 - Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is an infectious disease caused by bacteria, viruses, or a combination of these infectious agents. The severity of the clinical manifestations of CAP varies significantly. Consequently, both the differentiation of viral from bacterial CAP cases and the accurate assessment and prediction of disease severity are critical for effectively managing individuals with CAP. To solve questionable cases, several biomarkers indicating the etiology and severity of CAP have been studied. Unfortunately, only a few studies have examined the roles of these biomarkers in pediatric practice. The main aim of this paper is to detail current knowledge regarding the use of biomarkers to diagnose and treat CAP in children, analyzing the most recently published relevant studies. Despite several attempts, the etiologic diagnosis of pediatric CAP and the estimation of the potential outcome remain unsolved problems in most cases. Among traditional biomarkers, procalcitonin (PCT) appears to be the most effective for both selecting bacterial cases and evaluating the severity. However, a precise cut-off separating bacterial from viral and mild from severe cases has not been defined. The three-host protein assay based on C-reactive protein (CRP), tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL), plasma interferon-γ protein-10 (IP-10), and micro-array-based whole genome expression arrays might offer more advantages in comparison with former biomarkers. However, further studies are needed before the routine use of those presently in development can be recommended.

AB - Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is an infectious disease caused by bacteria, viruses, or a combination of these infectious agents. The severity of the clinical manifestations of CAP varies significantly. Consequently, both the differentiation of viral from bacterial CAP cases and the accurate assessment and prediction of disease severity are critical for effectively managing individuals with CAP. To solve questionable cases, several biomarkers indicating the etiology and severity of CAP have been studied. Unfortunately, only a few studies have examined the roles of these biomarkers in pediatric practice. The main aim of this paper is to detail current knowledge regarding the use of biomarkers to diagnose and treat CAP in children, analyzing the most recently published relevant studies. Despite several attempts, the etiologic diagnosis of pediatric CAP and the estimation of the potential outcome remain unsolved problems in most cases. Among traditional biomarkers, procalcitonin (PCT) appears to be the most effective for both selecting bacterial cases and evaluating the severity. However, a precise cut-off separating bacterial from viral and mild from severe cases has not been defined. The three-host protein assay based on C-reactive protein (CRP), tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL), plasma interferon-γ protein-10 (IP-10), and micro-array-based whole genome expression arrays might offer more advantages in comparison with former biomarkers. However, further studies are needed before the routine use of those presently in development can be recommended.

KW - Biomarkers

KW - C-reactive protein

KW - Interferon-γ protein-10

KW - Procalcitonin

KW - Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85013301790&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=85013301790&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.3390/ijms18020447

DO - 10.3390/ijms18020447

M3 - Review article

VL - 18

JO - International Journal of Molecular Sciences

JF - International Journal of Molecular Sciences

SN - 1661-6596

IS - 2

M1 - 447

ER -