Kidney diseases represent an important clinical problem, with increasing incidence and high mortality rate. Despite encouraging results on acute kidney injury (AKI) treatment in animals studies, no specific treatment has yet been successful in humans. One of the important factors contributing to this problem is the lack of an early AKI diagnostic test. Serum creatinine, the current diagnostic test for kidney disease, rises late in AKI and is inaccurate as marker of acute changes in glomerular filtration rate. The application of innovative technologies, such as functional genomics and proteomics, to human and animal AKI models has revealed promising novel biomarkers, with potentially higher sensitivity and specificity. These include plasma [neutrophil gelatinaseassociated lipocalin (NGAL) and cystatin C] and urine markers [NGAL, interleukin 18 and kidney injury molecule-1(KIM-1)]. Because they represent sequential biomarkers, it is likely that an AKI panel will be useful for timing the initial insult, assessing the duration of AKI, and predicting overall prognosis with respect to dialysis requirement and mortality. It is also likely that these biomarkers will help to distinguish between various types of renal dysfunction.
|Translated title of the contribution||Biomarkers of acute kidney injury|
|Number of pages||6|
|Publication status||Published - Dec 2010|
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Clinical Biochemistry
- Biochemistry, medical
- Medical Laboratory Technology